A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

LONDON HALLMARKS
OF THE 18th CENTURY

The actual marks used in London from 1700 to 1799



The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of the origin and the age of each piece.
The marks are:

Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the assay office that has verified the piece

London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased certifiying the silver's quality.
The "Britannia standard" (alloy containing 95,84% of silver) was the obligatory standard for items of "wrought plate" from 1697 until 1 June 1720. Thereafter Britannia silver has remained an optional standard for silver assay in the United Kingdom.


lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718

Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the assay office

London date letter 'a'

A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of duty

Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890
(click on the photo to enlarge image)




Year

Date letter

Lion's head erased
Leopard's head

Britannia standard
Lion passant

1700
London 1700 date letter London 1700 Lion's head erased mark London 1700 Britannia standard mark

1702
London 1702 date letter London 1702 Lion's head erased mark London 1702 Britannia standard mark

1704
London 1704 date letter London 1704 Lion's head erased mark London 1704 Britannia standard mark

1706
London 1706 date letter London 1706 Lion's head erased mark London 1706 Britannia standard mark

1708
London 1708 date letter London 1708 Lion's head erased mark London 1708 Britannia standard mark

1710
London 1710 date letter

.
.

1712
London 1712 date letter London 1712 Lion's head erased mark London 1712 Britannia standard mark

1714
London 1714 date letter London 1714 Lion's head erased mark London 1714 Britannia standard mark

1716
London 1716 date letter London 1716 Lion's head erased mark London 1716 Britannia standard mark

1718
London 1718 date letter London 1718 Lion's head erased mark London 1718 Britannia standard mark

1720
London 1720 date letter London 1720 Lion's head erased mark London 1720 Britannia standard mark

1722
London 1722 date letter London 1722 Lion's head erased mark London 1722 Britannia standard mark

1724
London 1724 date letter London 1724 Lion's head erased mark London 1724 Britannia standard mark

1726
London 1726 date letter London 1726 Leopard's head mark London 1726 lion passant mark

1728
London 1728 date letter London 1728 Leopard's head mark London 1728 lion passant mark

1730
London 1730 date letter London 1730 Leopard's head mark London 1730 lion passant mark

1732
London 1732 date letter London 1732 Leopard's head mark London 1732 lion passant mark

1734
London 1734 date letter London 1734 Leopard's head mark London 1734 lion passant mark

1736
London 1736 date letter London 1736 Leopard's head mark London 1736 lion passant mark

1738
London 1738 date letter London 1738 Leopard's head mark London 1738 lion passant mark

1740
London 1740 date letter London 1740 Leopard's head mark London 1740 lion passant mark

1742
London 1742 date letter London 1742 Leopard's head mark London 1742 lion passant mark

1744
London 1744 date letter London 1744 Leopard's head mark London 1744 lion passant mark

1746
London 1746 date letter London 1746 Leopard's head mark London 1746 lion passant mark

1748
London 1748 date letter London 1748 Leopard's head mark London 1748 lion passant mark

1750
London 1750 date letter London 1750 Leopard's head mark London 1750 lion passant mark

1752
London 1752 date letter London 1752 Leopard's head mark London 1752 lion passant mark

1754
London 1754 date letter London 1754 Leopard's head mark London 1754 lion passant mark

1756
London 1757 date letter London 1757 Leopard's head mark London 1757 lion passant mark

1758
London 1758 date letter London 1758 Leopard's head mark London 1758 lion passant mark

1760
London 1760 date letter London 1760 Leopard's head mark London 1760 lion passant mark

1762
London 1762 date letter London 1762 Leopard's head mark London 1762 lion passant mark

1764
London 1764 date letter London 1764 Leopard's head mark London 1764 lion passant mark

1766
London 1766 date letter London 1766 Leopard's head mark London 1766 lion passant mark

1768
London 1768 date letter London 1768 Leopard's head mark London 1768 lion passant mark

1770
London 1770 date letter London 1770 Leopard's head mark London 1770 lion passant mark

1772
London 1772 date letter London 1772 Leopard's head mark London 1772 lion passant mark

1774
London 1774 date letter London 1774 Leopard's head mark London 1774 lion passant mark

1776
London 1776 date letter London 1776 Leopard's head mark London 1776 lion passant mark

1778
London 1778 date letter London 1778 Leopard's head mark London 1778 lion passant mark

1780
London 1780 date letter London 1780 Leopard's head mark London 1780 lion passant mark

1782
London 1782 date letter London 1782 Leopard's head mark London 1782 lion passant mark

1784
London 1784 date letter London 1784 Leopard's head mark London 1784 lion passant mark

1786
London 1786 date letter London 1786 Leopard's head mark London 1786 lion passant mark

1788
London 1788 date letter London 1788 Leopard's head mark London 1788 lion passant mark

1790
London 1790 date letter London 1790 Leopard's head mark London 1790 lion passant mark

1792
London 1792 date letter London 1792 Leopard's head mark London 1792 lion passant mark

1794
London 1794 date letter London 1794 Leopard's head mark London 1794 lion passant mark

1796
London 1796 date letter London 1796 Leopard's head mark London 1796 lion passant mark

1798
London 1798 date letter London 1798 Leopard's head mark London 1798 lion passant mark

Year

Date letter

Lion's head erased
Leopard's head

Britannia standard
Lion passant

1701
London 1701 date letter London 1701 Town mark London 1701 Britannia standard mark

1703
London 1703 date letter London 1703 Town mark London 1703 Britannia standard mark

1705
London 1705 date letter London 1705 Town mark London 1705 Britannia standard mark

1707
London 1707 date letter London 1707 Town mark London 1707 Britannia standard mark

1709
London 1709 date letter London 1709 Lion's head erased mark London 1709 Britannia standard mark

1711
London 1711 date letter London 1711 Lion's head erased mark London 1711 Britannia standard mark

1713
London 1713 date letter London 1713 Lion's head erased mark London 1713 Britannia standard mark

1715
London 1715 date letter London 1715 Lion's head erased mark London 1715 Britannia standard mark

1717
London 1717 date letter London 1717 date letter London 1717 Britannia standard mark

1719
London 1719 date letter London 1719 Lion's head erased mark London 1719 Britannia standard mark

1721
London 1721 date letter London 1721 Leopard's head mark London 1721 lion passant mark

1723
London 1723 date letter London 1723 Leopard's head mark London 1723 lion passant mark

1725
London 1725 date letter London 1725 Leopard's head mark London 1725 lion passant mark

1727
London 1727 date letter London 1727 Leopard's head mark London 1727 lion passant mark

1729
London 1729 date letter London 1729 Leopard's head mark London 1729 lion passant mark

1731
London 1731 date letter London 1731 Leopard's head mark London 1731 lion passant mark

1733
London 1733 date letter London 1733 Leopard's head mark London 1733 lion passant mark

1735
London 1735 date letter London 1735 Leopard's head mark London 1735 lion passant mark

1737
London 1737 date letter London 1737 Leopard's head mark London 1737 lion passant mark

1739
London 1739 date letter London 1739 Leopard's head mark London 1739 lion passant mark

1741
London 1741 date letter London 1741 Leopard's head mark London 1741 lion passant mark

1743
London 1743 date letter London 1743 Leopard's head mark London 1743 lion passant mark

1745
London 1745 date letter London 1745 Leopard's head mark London 1745 lion passant mark

1747
London 1747 date letter London 1747 date letter London 1747 lion passant mark

1749
London 1749 date letter London 1749 Leopard's head mark London 1749 lion passant mark

1751
London 1751 date letter London 1751 Leopard's head mark London 1751 lion passant mark

1753
London 1753 date letter London 1753 Leopard's head mark London 1753 lion passant mark

1755
London 1755 date letter London 1755 Leopard's head mark London 1755 lion passant mark

1757
London 1757 date letter London 1757 Leopard's head mark London 1757 lion passant mark

1759
London 1759date letter London 1759 Leopard's head mark London 1759 lion passant mark

1761
London 1761 date letter London 1761 Leopard's head mark London 1761 lion passant mark

1763
London 1763 date letter London 1763 Leopard's head mark London 1763 lion passant mark

1765
London 1765 date letter London 1765 Leopard's head mark London 1765 lion passant mark

1767
London 1767 date letter London 1767 Leopard's head mark London 1767 lion passant mark

1769
London 1769 date letter London 1769 Leopard's head mark London 1769 lion passant mark

1771
London 1771 date letter London 1771 Leopard's head mark London 1771 lion passant mark

1773
London 1773 date letter London 1773 Leopard's head mark London 1773 lion passant mark

1775
London 1777 date letter London 1777 Leopard's head mark London 1777 lion passant mark

1777
London 1775 date letter London 1775 Leopard's head mark London 1775 lion passant mark

1779
London 1779 date letter London 1779 Leopard's head mark London 1779 lion passant mark

1781
London 1781 date letter London 1781 Leopard's head mark London 1781 lion passant mark

1783
London 1783 date letter London 1783 Leopard's head mark London 1783 lion passant mark

1785
London 1785 date letter London 1785 Leopard's head mark London 1785 lion passant mark

1787
London 1787 date letter London 1787 Leopard's head mark London 1787 lion passant mark

1789
London 1789 date letter London 1789 Leopard's head mark London 1789 lion passant mark

1791
London 1791 date letter London 1791 Leopard's head mark London 1791 lion passant mark

1793
London 1793 date letter London 1793 Leopard's head mark London 1793 lion passant mark

1795
London 1795 date letter London 1795 Leopard's head mark London 1795 lion passant mark

1797
London 1797 date letter . London 1797 lion passant mark

1799
London 1799 date letter London 1799 Leopard's head mark London 1799 lion passant mark


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