The artels in Imperial Russia were semi formal co-operatives in different fields like agriculture, fishing, mining, timber industry and gold/silver smithing. Nowadays they are all forgotten except for the gold/silver artels due to the fine objects they produced and still exsist.
An artel is a factory but the opposite of mass production. It produced unique objects or pieces of art of very high quality. An artel could not have less than 5 owners/attendants. However, you were allowed to hire more people but only for a short limited period. An artel had its own rules and you were obliged to obey them. Everyone working there was collectively liable for all the operations in the artel. You could work in an artel from the age of 17 on.
All known master workshops or artels for silver, gold as well as icons with oklads and enamel cloisonné and guilloché objects towards the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century are listed in these pages, with details of styles used.
The artels' series of numbers is not complete. Until today there is no evidence of the existence of a silver artel carrying any of the following numbers: 10, 16, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27 or 30. Why the series of numbers is incomplete is not known.

(text and images by Postnikov and Qrts )
1st Artel
1st Artel Moscow

Icons with oklads in enamel
Traditional style. Very famous artel
1st Silver Artel
Julius Rappoport’s, workshop later overtaken by
1st Artel
1st Artel Moscow

1st Artel Moscow
Mentioned 1915-1917
Working partly with enamelling in cloisonné but also in the plique-a-jour and the guilloché techniques.
High quality silver items. Icons with oklads in enamel. The mark of 1st Artel is often found together with the mark of I.Vasiliev
One of the most famous workshops in Russia. Court supplier.
Traditional style
Not to be mixed up with J. Rappoport’s workshop

2nd Jeweller Artel
2nd Jeweller Artel Moscow
Mentioned 1915-1917
2nd Artel
2nd Artel Moscow   2A
Wine pitcher, vodka cups, match box holders, napkin rings, Samorodok, enamel, cloisonné
Art nouveau, Traditional style
3rd Artel
3A (?)

Enamelled objects in guilloché technique.
Cigarette cases, table bells, boxes and photoframes.
Very few objects known.
4th Artel
4th Artel Moscow

   4.A.     4M.A
Mentioned 1906 (08?)
Salt-cellars, tableware
Traditional style
5th Artel
5th Artel Moscow   5A
After 1912-1916
Napkin rings in Samorodok, bowls
Art nouveau, Traditional style
5th Jeweller's Artel
5th Jeweller Artel Moscow
Objects in gold
6th Artel
6th Artel Moscow  6A

6th Artel Moscow  6MA
Working mostly with enamel cloisonné but also in plique-a-jour and guilloché techniques.
Tea spoons

One of the most famous in Russia, court supplier of high quality (enameled) silver.
Traditional style, complete enamel covering, olive-green, blue, cream
7th Artel
7th Artel Moscow   7A
After 1908
Working partly with enamel cloisonné but also in plique-a-jour and guilloche techniques.
Icons with oklads in enamel
Traditional style

9th Artel
9th Artel Moscow   9A
Mentioned 1910-1916
Tea-strainer, sugar tongs
Art nouveau, Traditional style
11th Artel
11th Artel Moscow

11A, 11MA, 11M.A.
After 1908
Working mostly with enamel cloisonné but also in plique-a-jour and the guilloché techniques.
Tea/coffee spoons, tea/coffee service sets, kovshi, sugar spoons and tea strainers.
One of the most famous ones, enamel, cloisonné and guilloche, high quality silver objects, in class with court suppliers’ work. Fabergés’s supplier.
Traditional style, complete enamel covering, art nouveau influence with triangular and rectangular enamel cells, volutes.
Spirals, silver beads, green ochre, violet- and-cream tints in a hazy "water-colour" style
12th Artel
12A (?)

Specialised in engravings in silver, cigarette cases
Exist proofs of its existence
13th Artel
13th Artel Moscow 13A

Mentioned 1915-1917
Coffee pots, spoons, napkin rings, vodka cups
Art nouveau, Traditional style
14th Artel
14th Artel Moscow 14A

Mentioned 1915-1917
Frames, settings for vases
Art nouveau, Traditional style.
Supplier for others
15th Artel
15th Artel Moscow 15A

15th Artel Moscow F/S
Mentioned 1915-1917
Frames, settings for vases, cake plates christal/silver mounting
Art nouveau, Traditional style
Supplier for others
18th Artel
18th Artel Moscow 18A
After 1908
Vodka cups
Traditional style
20th Artel
20th Artel Moscow 20A
After 1908
Working mostly with enamel cloisonné but also in plique-a-jour and the guilloché techniques.
Tea/coffee and sugar spoons, tea/coffee service sets, tea strainers, kovshi
Traditional style, similar to the 11th Artel in its Art nouveau style, often too with quite traditional flowers alongside the Art nouveau bands. Shaded blues
22nd Artel
22nd Artel Moscow 22A
After 1908
Salt-cellar, napkin rings, vodka cups
Traditional style
23rd Artel
23rd Artel Moscow 23A
After 1908
Tea glass holder, napkin rings
Art nouveau, Traditional style
25th Artel
25th Artel Moscow 25A
After 1908
Creamer, sugar bowls, tea-strainer
Traditional style
26th Artel
26A (?)

Working mostly with enamelling in cloisonné but also in the plique-a-jour and the guilloché techniques
Existance proofed

28th Artel
28th Artel Moscow 28A
After 1908
Tea glass holder
Traditional style
29th Artel
29th Artel Moscow 29A
Mentioned 1915-1917
Sugar bowl
Traditional style
31st Artel
31st Artel Moscow 31A
Mentioned 1915-1917

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