EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS|
A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
The Dutch hallmarking system is organized on a compulsory base.
DUTCH HALLMARKS FROM 1953 TO PRESENT
Assay Office marks
Regional Assay Office mark
Identification letters: A - Amsterdam (closed 1988) B - Utrecht (closed 1986) C - The Hague ('s-Gravenhage) (closed 1988) D - Rotterdam (closed 1988) F - Leeuwarden (closed 1984) H - Arnhem (closed 1970) J - Joure (opened 2002) K - Den Bosch ('s-Hertogenbosch) (closed 1986) M - Schoonhoven (closed 1987) R - Gouda (opened 1988)
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antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, Sheffield plate, electroplate silver,
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