A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

SILVER HALLMARKS WORLDWIDE OVERVIEW worldwide hallmarks overview

CANADA - CHANNEL ISLANDS - DENMARK - ESTONIA - FINLAND - FRANCE

The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used.
In most countries, silver objects are stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith. Other marks can indicate the date of manufacture and additional information about the piece.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
This page presents a general overview on a series of national hallmarking systems. More detailed information and further hallmarks are available following the respective links.



COUNTRY:    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z

CANADA
JEE over T in a pentagon and pseudo English hallmarks mark, James E.Ellis, Toronto, Ontario, c. 1850/1880

CANADIAN MAKER'S MARKS PAGE



CHANNEL ISLANDS
J.LG into three conjoine circlesmark, John Le Gallais

CHANNEL ISLANDS MAKER'S MARKS PAGE



DENMARK
The first Danish hallmarking was made in Copenhagen at the end of the 15th century.
Later, other cities as Aalbotg, Aarhus, Odense and Viborg introduced their own mark as a guarantee of precious metals.
In 1893 the "Three-tower" mark of Copenhagen was adopted as the national mark in the new standardized hallmarking system. Copenhagen had the only Assay Office in Denmark.
Three-tower mark date 1893 Three-tower mark date 1914 Three-tower mark date 1919 Three-tower mark date 1923 Three-tower mark date 1925 Three-tower mark date 1926 Three-tower mark date 1939

DANISH HALLMARKS PAGE



ESTONIA
Russian hallmarks were used from 1840 to 1918 and from 1946 to 1990
In the period 1919-1924 was used a re-hallmarking mark "EW + flower" (Eesti Wabariik/Estonian Republic). Silver content was expressed in zolotniki (84)
The lion moving left mark into an oval together with silver content (800, 875, 900 and 935) was introduced in 1922.
A similar mark was reinstated after independence from Soviet Union.
Estonia: rehallmarking mark 1919-1924 1 Estonia: rehallmarking mark 1919-1924 2 Estonia: Russian/Estonian mark - unidentified Moscow silversmith and Joseph Kopf (Tallinn) 3 Estonia: Russian/Estonian mark - Hirsch Markowitsch (Tallinn) 4 Estonia: Richard Lange (Tallinn) 5 Estonia: Theodor Grühn (Tallinn) 6
1: re-hallmarking mark 1919-1924     2: re-hallmarking mark 1919-1924     3: Russian/Estonian mark - unidentified Moscow silversmith and Joseph Kopf (Tallinn)     4: Hirsch Markowitsch (Tallinn)     5: Richard Lange     6: Theodor Grühn (Tallinn)

ESTONIA MARKS PAGE

ESTONIA PRESENT MARKS PAGE



FINLAND
Finland was part of the Kingdom of Sweden until 1809 when it was ceded to Russia becoming an autonomous province.
Hallmarking in Finland was compulsory since 1754 and a date mark system introduced in 1759.
In 1810 the Swedish hallmarking system was abandoned and a new sequence of date letters introduced.

Since 1810 the national mark is one crown in a hearth shaped contour.
Finland national control mark for silver Finland: full set of silver marks

FINNISH HALLMARKS PAGE



FRANCE
ANCIENT HALLMARKS (ANCIEN REGIME)
France Ancien Regime: silversmith mark André-Denis Nesme c. 1720 1 France Ancien Regime: mark of charge 1703-1708 2 France Ancien Regime: mark of discharge 1717-1722 3 France Ancien Regime: mark of 'jurande' 1774-1775 4
1 silversmith mark André-Denis Nesme c. 1720     2: mark of charge 1703-1708     3: mark of discharge 1717-1722     4: mark of 'jurande' 1774-1775    

FRENCH ANCIEN REGIME HALLMARKS PAGE

FROM 1798 TO PRESENT
France: .950 fineness, Paris 1798-1809 1 France: .800 fineness, Paris 1798-1809 2 France: .950 fineness, Paris 1809-1819 3 France: .800 fineness, Paris 1809-1819 4 France: Guaranty medium objects Paris, 1809-1819 5 France: .950 fineness, Paris 1819-1838 6 France: Guaranty large objects, Paris 1819-1838 7 France: .950 fineness, 1838-1873 8 France: .800 fineness, 1838-1873 9 France: Export silver, 1878-1973 10
1: .950 fineness, Paris 1798-1809     2: France: .800 fineness, Paris 1798-1809     3: .950 fineness, Paris 1809-1819     4: .800 fineness, Paris 1809-1819     5: Guaranty medium objects Paris, 1809-1819     6: .950 fineness, Paris 1819-1838     7: Guaranty large objects, Paris 1819-1838     8: .950 fineness, 1838-1873     9: .800 fineness, 1838-1873     10: Export silver, 1878-1973

FRENCH HALLMARKS 1798 - PRESENT PAGE



COUNTRY:    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z




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