A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS
ESTONIA
A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
The Estonian hallmarking system is organized on a voluntary base.
Russian hallmarks were used from 1840 to 1918 and from 1946 to 1990
In the period 1919-1924 was used a re-hallmarking mark "EW + flower" (Eesti Wabariik/Estonian Republic). Silver content was expressed in zolotniki (84)
The lion moving left mark into an oval together with silver content (800, 875, 900 and 935) was introduced in 1922 and was in use until 1940.
A similar mark was reinstated after independence from Soviet Union (1990).
Estonia: rehallmarking mark 1919-1924 1 Estonia: rehallmarking mark 1919-1924 2 Estonia: Russian/Estonian mark - unidentified Moscow silversmith and Joseph Kopf (Tallinn) 3 Estonia: Russian/Estonian mark - Hirsch Markowitsch (Tallinn) 4 Estonia: Richard Lange (Tallinn) 5 Estonia: Theodor Grühn (Tallinn) 6
1: re-hallmarking mark 1919-1924     2: re-hallmarking mark 1919-1924     3: Russian/Estonian mark - unidentified Moscow silversmith and Joseph Kopf (Tallinn)     4: Hirsch Markowitsch (Tallinn)     5: Richard Lange     6: Theodor Grühn (Tallinn)

Estonia silver, gold and platinum hallmarks

silver

Estonia silver hallmarks

gold

Estonia gold hallmarks

platinum

Estonia platinum hallmarks

palladium

Estonia palladium hallmarks


The present Estonia hallmarking system is based on:
- two mandatory marks: maker's mark and silver fineness
- two optional marks: control mark (lion facing left) and date letter
Estonia date letters 1993-2016


FURTHER ESTONIAN MARKS


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SILVER FINENESS NUMBERS

OTHER EUROPEAN HALLMARKS (under construction)

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