A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS
PORTUGAL
A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
The Portuguese hallmarking system is organized on a compulsory base.

From 1690 the Portuguese hallmarking system was based in a series of town marks consisting generally in the first letter of the town name often surmounted by a crown. The towns were Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Coimbra, 屴ora, Faro, Guimar綣s, Lisbon, Porto, Santar幦 e Setbal.
Silver fineness was expressed in "dinheiros": 11 (916/1000) or 10.6 (854/1000).
Portugal ancient silver town marks

In 1887 the town system was abandoned attributing the responsibility to the "Casa da Moeda" and creating control offices in Lisbon, Porto, Braga (until 1911) and Gondomar (until 1913 a "department" of Porto office). Admitted purity degrees were .916 and .833.
PORTUGUESE SILVER HALLMARKS: 1887 - PRESENT

LARGE WORKS 1887 - 1937:
1訊OQUE EXACTO .916: 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE EXACT .916: EAGLE)

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1932: Gondomar .916 fineness
2訊OQUE EXACTO .833: 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE EXACT .833: EAGLE)
Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1932: Gondomar .833 fineness
SMALL WORKS 1887 - 1937:
1訊OQUE EXACTO .916: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE EXACT .916: EAGLE'S HEAD)

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1932: Gondomar small items .916 fineness
2訊OQUE EXACTO .833: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE EXACT .833: EAGLE'S HEAD)
Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1932: Gondomar small items .833 fineness

LARGE WORKS 1887 - 1937:
1訊OQUE APROXIMADO .916: JAVALI (FIRST TITLE APPROXIMATE .916: BOAR)

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga approximate .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar approximate .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1938: Gondomar approximate .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate .916 fineness
2訊OQUE APROXIMADO .916: JAVALI (SECOND TITLE APPROXIMATE .916: BOAR)
Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1938: Gondomar approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate .833 fineness
SMALL WORKS 1887 - 1937:
1 TOQUE APROXIMADO .916: CABEォ DE JAVALI (FIRST TITLE APPROXIMATE .916: BOAR'S HEAD)

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga approximate small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar approximate small items .916 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1938: Gondomar approximate small items .916 fineness
2 TOQUE APROXIMADO .833: CABEォ DE JAVALI (SECOND TITLE APPROXIMATE .833: BOAR'S HEAD)
Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Lisbon approximate small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga approximate small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar approximate small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1938: Gondomar approximate small items .833 fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1937: Porto approximate small items .833 fineness

OTHER WORKS 1887 - 1893:
Old items of minimum .750 silver fineness in commerce at the date of introduction of the new hallmarking system)

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1893: Lisbon works of old manufacture Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1891: Porto works of old manufacture Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1893: Porto works of old manufacture Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1893: Braga works of old manufacture

WORKS OF SPECIAL INTEREST 1887 - 1997:
Items bearing ancient hallmarks of minimum .750 silver fineness or of significant artistic or archaeological value

Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1997: Lisbon works of special interest Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1997: Porto works of special interest Portugal silver hallmark 1887/1911: Braga works of special interest Portugal silver hallmark 1900/1913: Gondomar works of special interest Portugal silver hallmark 1913/1937: Gondomar works of special interest
Unmarked used watches
Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: Lisbon used watches Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: Porto used watches Portugal silver hallmark 1938: Gondomar used watches

LARGE WORKS 1938 - 1984:
1訊OQUE .916: 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE .916: EAGLE)
Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: .916 large items fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: Lisbon .916 large items fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: Porto .916 large items fineness
2訊OQUE .833: 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE .833: EAGLE)
Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: .833 large items fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: .833 Porto large items fineness Portugal silver hallmark 1938/1984: .833 Lisbon large items fineness
SMALL WORKS 1938 - 1984:
1訊OQUE .916: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE .916: EAGLE'S HEAD)

Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: .916 small items  fineness
2訊OQUE .833: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE .833: EAGLE'S HEAD)
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: .833 small items  fineness

WATCH CASES
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: watch cases

EXPORT ITEMS
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: export items

MIXED METAL ITEMS
PLATINUM, GOLD AND SILVER
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: mixed metal items platinum, gold and silver
PLATINUM AND SILVER
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: mixed metal items platinum and silver
GOLD AND SILVER
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: mixed metal items gold and silver

OTHER ITEMS
JEWELLERY
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: jewellery
SPECIAL ITEMS
Portugal silver hallmark 1938 - 1984: special items

LARGE WORKS 1985 - 2015:
1訊OQUE .925: 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE .925: EAGLE)
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .925 fineness large works Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: Porto .925 fineness large works
2訊OQUE .835: 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE .835: EAGLE)
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .835 fineness large works Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: Porto .925 fineness large works
SMALL WORKS 1985 - 2015:
1訊OQUE .925: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (FIRST TITLE .925: EAGLE's HEAD)
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .925 fineness small works Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: Lisbon .925 fineness small works Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: Porto .925 fineness small works
2訊OQUE .835: CABEォ DE 礁UIA (SECOND TITLE .835: EAGLE'S HEAD)
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .925 fineness small works

EXPORT ITEMS 1985 - 2015:
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .925 fineness export items
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .830 fineness export items
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/2015: .800 fineness export items

WORKS OF SPECIAL INTEREST 1985 - PRESENT:
Items bearing ancient hallmarks
Portugal silver hallmark 1985/present: Items bearing ancient hallmarks
Items of significant artistic or archaeological value

Portugal silver hallmark 1985/present: works of special interest

SILVER HALLMARKS 2015 - PRESENT:
Portugal silver hallmark 2015/present: Lisbon Portugal silver hallmark 2015/present: Porto


OTHER PRECIOUS METALS
GOLD
Lisbon        Porto
Portugal gold hallmarks: Lisbon Portugal gold hallmarks: Porto
PLATINUM
Lisbon        Porto
Portugal platinum hallmarks: Lisbon Portugal platinum hallmarks: Porto
PALLADIUM
Lisbon        Porto
Portugal palladium hallmarks: Lisbon Portugal palladium hallmarks: Porto


HALLMARKING CONVENTION

Portugal is from 1982 a country member of the Convention on the Control and Marking of Articles of Precious Metals, an international treaty between States on the cross border trade in precious metal articles. It was signed in Vienna in November 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
The Convention's Common Control Mark (CCM) has the same legal status as a national Assay Office mark. The CCM is applied by national Assay Offices to articles of platinum, gold, palladium and silver after the fineness of the alloy has been checked in accordance with agreed testing methods.
Articles bearing the CCM - together with the national Assay Office Mark, the responsibility mark (manufacturer or sponsor) and the fineness mark indicating its purity - do not have to be re-controlled or re-marked in the states members of the Convention.
Portugal Common Control Mark (CCM)


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