A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

SILVER HALLMARKS WORLDWIDE OVERVIEW worldwide hallmarks overview

GERMANY - HUNGARY - IRAN (PERSIA) - ITALY - LATVIA

The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used.
In most countries, silver objects are stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith. Other marks can indicate the date of manufacture and additional information about the piece.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
This page presents a general overview on a series of national hallmarking systems. More detailed information and further hallmarks are available following the respective links.



COUNTRY:    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z

GERMANY
Robbe & Berking - Flensburg
GERMANY MARKS FROM 1888 PAGE

hallmark town of Furth 1770 hallmark town of Hanau 1770 hallmark town of Darmstadt 18th century hallmark town of Augsburg 1690-1695 hallmark town of Liegnitz 1830 hallmark town of Nurnberg 1710 hallmark town of Frankfurt/main 2nd half 18th century hallmark town of Dresden half 19th century
GERMANY ANCIENT MARKS

a mix of maker's marks in Hanau silver: a GB maker and Karl Kurz
GERMANY HANAU MARKS

German  marks: silver fineness 800/1000
GERMANY PRESENT MARKS PAGE


HUNGARY
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 elevated Hungary's status by the creation of a joint monarchy with the Austrian Empire, ruled in personal union as Austria-Hungary by the Austrian emperors during 1867-1918. After the First World War and the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, Hungary became a Republic continuing to use Austro-Hungarian silver hallmarks until 1937. Afterwards, five silver hallmarks change have been occurred, 1937, 1966, 1999, 2006 and the last in 2016.
Austria-Hungary silver hallmarks: large works 1866-1937, town of Pest 1 Hungary silver hallmarks: large works 1937 - 1966 2 Hungary silver hallmarks: large works 1966 - 1999 3
1: 1866 - 1937     2: 1937 - 1966     3: 1966 - 1999    

HUNGARY MARKS PAGE


IRAN (PERSIA)
First silver marks showing the maker's name and his city came into use in late 19th century.
Imitation of 84 Russian marks appeared c. 1890, possibly introduced by Armenian goldsmiths emigrated to Tabriz.
National marks with the "Armed Lion" in various shapes (fineness .840 and .900) were introduced in 1967.
The last shah was deposed in 1979 and Republican marks were intended to be introduced.

Iran, imitation of .84 Russian mark Iran, Parsi 84 mark Iran, imitation of .84 Russian mark joined to 84 Parsi mark
84 imitation of Russian mark (meaning .840 rather than .875) and Parsi 84
Iran, Armed Lion mark, 1967-1979 Iran, Armed Lion mark, 1967-1979
"Armed Lion" mark 1967-1979
Iran, silver mark Iran, silver mark Iran, silver mark Iran, silver mark Iran, silver mark



ITALY
ANCIENT STATES
Italy Ancient States: Genoa 1 Italy Ancient States: Lombardo Veneto 2 Italy Ancient States: Naples 3 Italy Ancient States: Rome 4 Italy Ancient States: Turin 5 Italy Ancient States: Sicily 6 Italy Ancient States: Venice 7
1: Genoa     2: Lombardo Veneto     3: Naples     4: Rome     5: Turin     6: Sicily     7: Venice

ITALIAN ANCIENT STATES HALLMARKS PAGES:   GENOA    LOMBARDO VENETO    NAPLES    ROME    TURIN    SICILY    VENICE

FROM 1872 TO PRESENT
Italy: .950 fineness, 1872-1935 1 Italy: .900 fineness, 1872-1935 2 Italy: .800 fineness, 1872-1935 3 Italy: town and maker's code, 1935-1944 4 Italy: town and maker's code, 1945-1970 5 Italy: Italy: town and maker's code, 1971-present 6
1: .950 fineness, 1872-1935     2: .900 fineness, 1872-1935     3: .800 fineness, 1872-1935     4: town and maker's code, 1935-1944     5: town and maker's code, 1945-1970     6: town and maker's code, 1971-present

ITALIAN HALLMARKS FROM 1872 PAGE



LATVIA
Russian hallmarks were used from 1840 to 1918 and from 1946 to 1990
From 1925/1927 to 1939 was used a slightly rounded corners rectangular mark containing a head with the Latvian crown and the silver fineness.
A similar mark was reinstated after independence from Soviet Union.
Latvia: Russian/Latvian mark - unidentified PJS St. Petersburg silversmith 1 Latvia: Bernhard Bergholtz (Riga) 2 Latvia: Oskar Vk (Riga) 3 Latvia: unidentified maker 4 Latvia: unidentified maker 5 Latvia: unidentified maker 6
1: Russian/Latvian mark - unidentified PJS St. Petersburg silversmith     2: Bernhard Bergholtz (Riga)     3: Oskar Vk (Riga)     4: unidentified maker     5: unidentified maker         5: unidentified maker

LATVIA MARKS PAGE

LATVIA PRESENT MARKS PAGE



COUNTRY:    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z




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