HALLMARKS OF ITALIAN SILVER
(LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY)

created by Giorgio B. owner of
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This is a page of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertu, a 1000 pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, silver marking system and silver hallmarks guide, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths (Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkington, WMF, Reed & Barton, Mappin & Webb, Bateman Family), history, oddities ...
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ITALIAN
MAKERS MARKS
GENOA LOMBARDO
VENETO
NAPLES PAPAL STATES
ROME
PIEDMONT SICILY VENICE PSEUDO
HALLMARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF 20th CENTURY ITALIAN SILVERSMITHS (SORTED BY PROVINCE)
AL AR BL BO BS FE FI FO GE MI MO NA PA PD PR PV RE RO ROMA TO TS TV UD VA VC VE VI VR

This is a brief history and a selection of Italian silver hallmarks from 1870 to present days.
The documentation about this period of Italian silversmithing is extremely scarce and defficult to find.
The objective of this page is to offer an introduction to this matter and a cue for a more deep study of this fascinating period.
In 1870, with the conquest of Rome and the end of Stato Pontificio (Papal State), Italy attained its unity and a unique system of hallmarking was introduced in the Regno d'Italia (Kingdom of Italy). The law 2 May 1872 deregulated silver production and introduced only a not compulsory inspection of silver artifacts.

OFFICIAL MARKS (legge 2 Maggio 1872)

1
hallmark Italy 950/1000 from 1872
optional hallmark, purity degree 950/1000
2
hallmark Italy 900/100 from 1872
hallmark Italy 900/100 from 1872
optional hallmark, purity degree 900/1000
3
hallmark Italy 800/100 from 1872
optional hallmark, purity degree 800/1000

Italian silversmiths rarely submitted their pieces to the optional official hallmarking.
Usually silver pieces were marked only with the '800' (purity degree 800/1000), sometimes coupled with the silversmith's hallmark.
The '800' was an unofficial mark and there was no uniformity in its shape.

4
 800 with oval outline and VM (presumably silversmith's initials)
'800' with oval outline and VM (presumably silversmith's initials)
5
'800' without outline
'800' without outline
6
'800' without outline coupled to silversmith's hallmark
'800' without outline coupled to silversmith's hallmark
7
'800' without outline
'800' without outline


The law 5 February 1934 n. 305 introduced uniformity in the shape of silversmith's marks.
The new mark identifying the silversmith consisted of a lozenge containing:
number: corresponding to the number identifying the silversmith
'fascio': fascist party symbol
two letters: initials of the Province
The lozenge was coupled to an oval containing the purity degree 800 or 925 per thousand.

OFFICIAL MARKS (legge 5 Febbraio 1934 n. 305)

8
official marks - legge 5 Febbraio 1935
'800' and lozenge mark identifying the silversmith
number / fascio / province
9
lozenge with 'fascio'
lozenge with 'fascio'
10
'800' with oval outline
purity degree '800 into an oval outline
special mark for items in stock
special mark for items in stock, used within one year from the acquisition of the new punches. Were used two versions of the punch, similar but of different size, for large works and small works (courtesy Andrea Menarini)


The Law 26 October 1944 n. 313 (Decreto Legislativo Luogotenenziale 26 Ottobre 1944 n. 313) ordered the elimination of the 'fascio' (symbol of 'fascism') maintaining into the lozenge only the number (identification of the silversmith) and the two letters (initials of the Province).
The availability of new lozenges was not immediate and for a short period the old marks with the obliterated 'fascio' were maintained.

OFFICIAL MARK (Decreto Legislativo 26 Ottobre 1944 n. 313)

11
lozenge mark without 'fascio'
lozenge mark without 'fascio'
number / province


The Laws 30 January 1968 (Legge 30 gennaio 1968 n. 46) and 30 December 1970 n. 1496 (D.P.R. 30 Dicembre 1970 n. 1496) introduced new hallmarks for silver and precious metals. The mark was modified to a polygonal shape and a star was added on the left. Numbers and Province letter were maintained.
Purity degree 925, 835 and 800 per thousand were allowed and inscribed into an oval outlined mark.
This system is still in use in present days.

OFFICIAL MARKS (Legge 30 Gennaio 1968 n. 46 and D.P.R. 30 Dicembre 1970 n. 1496 )

12
polygonal mark with 'star' polygonal mark with 'star'
polygon with 'star'
star / number / province
13
purity degree outline '800' purity degree outline '925' purity degree outline
purity degree into an oval outline




'800'




'925'


The 'Decreto Legislativo 22 Maggio 1999, n. 251' introduced a system of marks for objects made in precious metals and weighted with resin or mastic . The new mark is a R inside a square outline (the R is the abbreviation of 'Riempito' = filled in English).

OFFICIAL MARK (Decreto Legislativo 22 Maggio 1999, n. 251)

14
This piece was created in a resin or mastic then covered with 3 to 5 grams of 925 standard silver as shown by 3 ÷ 5

These are the regulations governing the manufacture 'Riempito'

(Article 39 of the 'Regolamento recante norme per l'applicazione del Decreto Legislativo 22 Maggio 1999, n. 251')

a) negli oggetti parzialmente o totalmente rivestiti in lamina di metallo prezioso, e' consentito l'uso di mastice per fissare la lamina al suo supporto, a condizione che la densita' del mastice non sia superiore a 2,5 g/cm 3 e che la sua percentuale in peso non superi il 25% del peso totale dell'oggetto, e che sia incisa l'indicazione "R" racchiusa in un quadrato, accompagnata dalla indicazione del peso del metallo, in grammi e decimi di grammo, seguita dal simbolo "g" per i rivestimenti in platino, palladio ed oro, e alle condizioni di cui alla successiva lettera c) per i rivestimenti in argento;



a) In the objects partially or totally coated with a sheet of precious metal, the use of putty is allowed to fix the thin sheet to its support, on condition that the density of the putty is not more than 2,5 g/cubic cm. and that its percentage in weight does not exceed 25% of the total weight of the object, and that it is marked with an "R" in a square accompanied by the metal's weight in grams and tenths of gram, followed by the symbol "g" for the coverings in platinum, palladio and gold, and adheres to the conditions illustrated at letter c) for the coverings in silver;
 

b) nei piedi o basamenti di vasi, candelabri, coppe ed oggetti affini, che per praticita' di uso sono rinforzati ed appesantiti, e' ammessa la introduzione di un riempimento metallico, a condizione che questo sia applicato in maniera da poter essere smontato e che risulti totalmente visibile o che, se ricoperto con piastre o coperchi metallici o non metallici, tale copertura sia fissata in modo da poter essere, anche essa, agevolmente smontata. Su ogni parte di metallo comune, ivi comprese le piastre di copertura, deve essere impressa l'indicazione "metallo" ovvero il nome specifico del metallo o della lega impiegati. Nel caso in cui la piastra di copertura sia in metallo prezioso, essa reca il marchio di identificazione, l'indicazione del titolo, il termine "riempito", nonche' il peso del metallo fino espresso in grammi seguito dalla lettera "g" della piastra stessa;
 
b) In the feet or bases of pots, candelabra, cups and similar objects weighted or strengthened, is admitted the use of a metallic filling up, to condition that this is applied in manner to be able to be dismantled and fully visible or, if covered with metallic or non metallic lids, such covering is fixed so as to be easily dismantled. Every part of non precious metal, included the covering lids, will be marked with the generic indication "metal" or the specific name of the metal or of the league used. When the covering is in precious metal it is marked with its specific mark, the title, the word riempito (filled) and its weight in grams followed from the letter "g";

c) nei manici dei coltelli e' ammesso il riempimento con sostanze non metalliche senza pregiudizio dei limiti di densita', ed e' consentito altresi' che la lama sia fissata al manico con saldatura in metallo non prezioso a condizione che in ogni manico sia inciso il termine "riempito" o facoltativamente l'indicazione "R" racchiusa in un quadrato, accompagnata dalla indicazione del peso della lega di metallo prezioso, in grammi e decimi di grammo, seguita dal simbolo "g". Nei manici in argento, nei quali il peso del metallo prezioso e' inferiore o uguale a 50 grammi, detto peso pero' puo' essere espresso anziche' col suo valore effettivo, in maniera approssimata, facendo seguire la lettera "R" (riempito) da una delle seguenti notazioni: due cifre, separate dal simbolo "÷" seguite dalla lettera "g", nelle quali le cifre rappresentano, in grammi, i valori minimo e massimo entro i quali il peso stesso deve intendersi contenuto: 1÷2, 2÷3, 3÷5, 5÷7, 7÷10, 10÷13, 13÷16, 16÷20, 20÷25, 25÷30, 30÷35, 35÷40, 40÷45, 45÷50.

 


c) In the handles of the knives non metallic substance is allowed without limits of its density, and is allowed to fix the blade with welding in non-precious metal on condition that the handle bears the word "riempito" or the mark "R" within a square and the indication of the weight of the precious metal (in grams and tenths of gram) followed by the symbol "g". In the silver handles with a weight of precious metal inferior or equal to 50 grams the weight may be expressed in approximate manner, using the "R" followed by two figures, separated from the symbol "÷" and the letter "g", in which the figures represent, in grams, the minimum and maximum weight of the precious metal: 1÷2, 2÷3, 3÷5, 5÷7, 7÷10, 10÷13, 13÷16, 16÷20, 20÷25, 25÷30, 30÷35, 35÷40, 40÷45, 45÷50.




 

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THE HALLMARKS SECTION
Moskow hallmarkSt Petersburg hallmark official marks - legge 5 Febbraio 1935 Paris 1818/1838 hallmarkParis 1797/1809 hallmark London town markSheffield town mark Whiting sterling silver mark
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Pelton Bros. Silver Plate Co. hallmarkRogers & Bro. - Waterbury CT hallmark Mappin & Webb hallmarkWalker & Hall hallmark Devices of Old Sheffiel Plate
American Silver Plate marks English Electroplate silver marks Old Sheffied Plate marks
Elkington hallmark Peter Charles Faberge mark Georg Jensen hallmark 1945-1951 Gorham Athenic hallmark Tiffany hallmarks WMF hallmarks Reed & Barton mark Mappin & Webb mark Hester Bateman mark Wiener Werkstatte monogram
Elkington
Fabergé
Georg Jensen
Gorham
Tiffany & Co
WMF
Reed & Barton
Mappin & Webb
Bateman
Wiener Werkstatte
This is a page of Silvercollection.it "A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertu", a 1000 pages widely illustrated website offering all you wish to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths (Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkington, WMF, Masppin & Webb, Reed & Barton), history, oddities ...
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