SILVER HALLMARKS AND MARKS
ANTIQUE AND MODERN
MARKS AND HALLMARKS OF SILVER
MARCHI E PUNZONI DELL'ARGENTO
POINÇONS DE L'ARGENT ET POINÇON DE L'ORFEVRE

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This is a page of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertu, a 1500 pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths (Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkington, Mappin & Webb, WMF, Reed & Barton), history, oddities ...
SITE MAP - HOME PAGE

- maker, town, assayer marks and hallmarks of antique and modern silver: Russian, Italian, English, American, French, German, Austrian, Mexican, Hanau, Silver plate, Electroplate silver, Sheffield plate, Old Sheffield Plate and much more ... presented by SILVERCOLLECTION.IT - A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
- questa è una selezione di punzoni dell'argento tratti da SILVERCOLLECTION.IT - UNA PICCOLA COLLEZIONE DI ARGENTO ANTICO
- une selection de poincons de l'argenterie par SILVERCOLLECTION.IT - UNE PETITE COLLECTION D'ARGENTERIE ANCIENNE

THE SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY

STERLING SILVER OF USA AND CANADA
AMERICAN STERLING Aa An Ba Bi Ca Co Da Du E Fa Fo Ga Gi Ha Hi
MAKER MARKS I-J K La Li M N O P-Q Ra Ro Sa Si T-U-V Wa Wh-X-Y-Z

SILVERPLATE OF USA AND CANADA
AMERICAN MAKERS Aa Am Ba Bi C D E F G H I - J - K L Ma
SILVER PLATE MARKS Mi N O P Q Ra Ro Sa Sm T U-V Wa We-X-Y-Z

STERLING SILVER OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, IRELAND, CHANNEL ISLANS AND COLONIES
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF
BRITISH MAKER'S MARKS
AA
AE
AF
AZ
BA
BZ
CA
CH
CK
CZ
DA
DZ
EA
EZ
FA
FZ
GA
GZ
HA
HG
HH
HZ
IA
IG
IH
IZ
JA
JC
JD
JH
JJ
JP
JQ
JS
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF
BRITISH MAKER'S MARKS
JT
JZ
KA
LZ
MA
MZ
NA
PA
PB
PZ
QA
RH
RK
RZ
SA
SG
SH
SZ
TA
TH
TI
TZ
UA
WB
WC
WF
WG
WL
WM
WS
WT
ZZ
ALPHABETICAL LISTING
OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
| DUTY MARKS | LEOPARD'S HEAD | LONDON MARKS | WOMEN SILVERSMITHS | PSEUDO HALLMARKS | CONTEMPORARY MARKS |
   
THE DIRECTORY OF SCOTTISH PROVINCIAL SILVER
ABERDEEN   ARBROATH    BALLATER    BANFF    CANONGATE    CUPAR    DUMFRIES    DUNDEE    ELGIN    ELLON    FOCHABERS    FORRES    GREENOCK    INVERNESS    IONA    MONTROSE    OBAN    PAISLEY    PERTH    PETERHEAD    ST.ANDREWS    TAIN    WICK


THE DIRECTORY OF CAPE SILVERSMITHS A - C D - I J - M N - T U - Z
THE DIRECTORY OF CHANNEL ISLANDS SILVERSMITHS A - F G - H I - P Q - Z unidentified makers
CANADA SILVERSMITHS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
AUSTRALIAN SILVERSMITHS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z NOT IDENTIFIED

BRITISH ELECTROPLATED SILVER - SILVERPLATE - SILVER PLATE
MAKER'S HISTORY
& MARK'S IMAGE
Aa
Az
Ba
Bd
Be
Bn
Bo
Bz
Ca
Cn
Co
Cz
Da
Dh
Di
Dz
Ea
Eo
Ep
Ez
Fa
Fh
Fi
Fz
Ga
Gn
Go
Gz
Ha
Hh
Hi
Hz
Ia
Jz
Ka
Kz
La
Lz
MAKER'S HISTORY
& MARK'S IMAGE
Ma
Maq
Mar
Mz
Na
Nz
Oa
Oz
Pa
Pg
Ph
Pz
Qa
Rz
Sa
Sh
Si
Sz
Ta
Uz
Va
Vz
Wa
Wh
Wi
Wz
Ya
Yz
Za
Zz
unk.
#1
unk.
#2
unk.
#3
unk.
#4

STEP BY STEP GUIDE TO SILVERPLATE MARKS | FIGURAL TRADE MARKS | ALPHABETIC SYMBOLS | DATING UK PATENT MARKS |
OLD SHEFFIELD PLATE | | ELKINGTON DATE LETTERS | WALKER & HALL DATE LETTERS | MAPPIN & WEBB DATE LETTERS | EPNS - EPBM |

St Petersburg hallmark official marks - legge 5 Febbraio 1935 Paris 1818/1838 hallmarkParis 1797/1809 hallmark London town mark German silver hallmark Hanau silver hallmark Austrian silver hallmark Sanborn/Mexico silver mark Joseph Kopf: Tallinn silver mark
Russia Italy France England UK  Germany  Hanau  Austria  Mexico  Latvia - Estonia
Pelton Bros. Silver Plate Co. hallmarkRogers & Bro. - Waterbury CT hallmark Mappin & Webb hallmarkJames Dixon & Son mark Devices of Old Sheffiel Plate Herrmann factory silver plate mark
American Silver Plate marks English Electroplate silver marks Old Sheffied Plate marks Continental European silver plate marks

DIRECTORY OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN SILVER PLATE MAKERS

Peter Charles Faberge mark Gorham Athenic hallmark International Silver Company mark Georg Jensen hallmark 1945-1951 Kirk & Son mark Meriden Britannia Company mark Reed & Barton mark Rogers Bros mark Tiffany hallmarks Towle Silversmiths mark Wallace Silversmiths mark Wiener Werkstatte monogram WMF hallmarks
Fabergé
Gorham
International Silver Co
Georg Jensen
Kirk Stieff
Meriden Britannia
Reed & Barton
Rogers
Tiffany & Co
Towle
Wallace
Wiener Werkstatte
WMF

DIRECTORY OF FRENCH SILVERSMITHS / REPERTOIRE DES ORFEVRES FRANCAIS
AA AH B CA CG D EA EJ F GA GH HA HG I JA JH K LA LH MA MH N O PA PH Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Paris 950/1000 Paris 950/1000 warranty Paris (85) Départements 800/1000 Paris 950/1000 large objects fineness 950/1000 FRENCH SILVER HALLMARKS (FROM 1797 TO PRESENT DAYS)

THE DIRECTORY OF 20th CENTURY ITALIAN SILVERSMITHS (SORTED BY PROVINCE)
AL AR BL BO BS FE FI FO GE MI MO NA PA PD PR PV RE RO ROMA TO TS TV UD VA VC VE VI VR

LISTING OF AUSTRIAN SILVERSMITH FROM THE 18th TO THE 20th CENTURY
ALPHABETICAL LISTING A BA
BH
BI
BZ
C D E F G HA
HH
HI
HZ
I J KA
KN
KO
KZ
L M N O P Q R SA
SD
SE
SZ
T U V W X Y Z
BRITISH PIPE MAKERS

BRITISH SILVER MAKERS: MARKS, HISTORY AND INFORMATION
Adie & Lovekin mark Asprey & Co mark Atkin Brothers mark Barker Brothers mark E. Barnard & Sons mark Hester Bateman mark Boardman, Glossop & Co Ltd markCharles Boyton & Son mark Thomas Bradbury & Sons mark Alfred Browett trade mark
Adie & Lovekin Asprey & Co Atkin Brothers Barker Brothers E.Barnard & Sons Bateman Boardman Glossop & Co Charles Boyton & Son T. Bradbury & Sons Alfred Browett
Chawner & Co mark Alexander Clark Manufacturing Co mark G.R. Collis & Co mark Daniel & Arter mark go to James Deakin & Sons page Deykin & Sons mark James Dixon & Sons mark Elkington hallmark Fattorini & Sons mark Garrard & Co Ltd mark
Chawner & Co Alexander Clark G.R. Collis & Co Daniel & Arter J.Deakin & Sons Deykin & Sons J.Dixon & Sons Elkington Fattorini & Sons Garrard & Co Ltd
Samuel Godbehere mark Goldsmiths & Silversmiths Co mark John Grinsell & Sons mark Hamilton & Inches mark Harrison Brothers & Howson mark Hayne & Cater mark Hukin & Heath Ltd mark William Hutton & Sons Ltd mark George Jamieson mark Paul De Lamerie mark
Samuel Godbehere Goldsmiths & Silversmiths John Grinsell & Sons Hamilton & Inches Harrison Br. & Howson Hayne & Cater Hukin & Heath W.Hutton & Sons George Jamieson Paul De Lamerie
Levi & Salaman mark Mappin & Webb mark Martin Hall & Co mark Sampson Mordan & Co Ltd mark R,F. Mosley mark H.H. Plante mark Thomas Prime & Son mark Robert Pringle & Sons mark Reid & Sons mark Roberts & Belk mark
Levi & Salaman Mappin & Webb Martin, Hall & Co Sampson Mordan & Co R.F. Mosley H.H. Plante Thomas Prime & Son Robert Pringle Reid & Sons Roberts & Belk
John Round & Son Ltd mark Goldsmiths' Alliance Ltd  Ltd mark Sibray, Hall & Co mark W & G Sissons mark F.B. Thomas & Co mark George Unite & Sons mark C.J. Vander Ltd mark Wakely & Wheeler mark Walker & Hall mark West & Son mark
John Round & Son Ltd AB Savory & Sons Ltd Sibray, Hall & Co Ltd W & G Sissons FB Thomas & Co George Unite & Sons C.J. Vander Ltd Wakely & Wheeler Walker & Hall West & Son
Henry Wilkison & Co mark Josiah Williams & Co mark Horace Woodward & Co Ltd mark . . . . . . .
H.Wilkinson & Co Josiah Williams & Co H.Woodward & Co . . . . . . .
chanukah lampkiddush cup

JUDAICA SILVER

a selection of Jewish ritual objects

ELECTROPLATED SILVER
The two common forms of plated silver are Sheffield plate and silverplate/electroplate.
Sheffield Plate is a cheaper substitute for sterling, produced by fusing sheets of silver to the top and bottom of a sheet of copper or base metal. This 'silver sandwich' was then worked into finished pieces. At first it was only put on one side and later was on top and bottom.
Modern electroplating was invented by Italian chemist Luigi V. Brugnatelli in 1805. Brugnatelli used his colleague Alessandro Volta's invention of five years earlier, the voltaic pile, to facilitate the first electrodeposition. Unfortunately, Brugnatelli's inventions were repressed by the French Academy of Sciences and did not become used in general industry for the following thirty years.
Silver plate or electroplate is formed when a thin layer of pure or sterling silver is deposited electrolytically on the surface of a base metal. By 1839, scientists in Britain and Russia had independently devised metal deposition processes similar to Brugnatelli's for the copper electroplating of printing press plates.
Soon after, John Wright of Birmingham, England, discovered that potassium cyanide was a suitable electrolyte for gold and silver electroplating.
Wright's associates, George Elkington and Henry Elkington were awarded the first patents for electroplating in 1840. These two then founded the electroplating industry in Birmingham England from where it spread around the world.
Common base metals include copper, brass, nickel silver (an alloy of copper, zinc and nickel) and Britannia metal-a tin alloy with 5-10% antimony.
Electroplated materials are often stamped EPNS for electroplated nickel or silver, or EPBM for electroplated Britannia metal.
E.P.N.S. (Electroplated Nickel Silver) and EPBM (Electroplated Britannia Metal) are the most common names attributed to silver plate items. But many other names are used for silver plate:
EPWM - Electroplate on White Metal, EPC - Electroplate on Copper, Argentium Argentine Plate, Argentum, Ascetic B. B. S. Ltd, Ashberry, Austrian Silver, Brazilian Silver D&A Trademark of Daniel and Arter, Buxbridge - Trademark name of JT&Co., Electrum, Encore TT&Co Trademark of T. Turner, Exquisite, HH&S , I.XL Geo. Wostenholm & Son, Insignia Plate, JB&S EP A1, JD&S = John Dixon & Sons, K & TL , M&W Mappin and Webb, N.S. New Silver, Nevada Silver D&A Trademark of Daniel and Arter, Norwegian Silver; Trademark of WG&S, Pelican Silver JGNS, Potosi Silver N&S WP, RN&S EP Neill, Silverite = Trademark of W P & Co , Sonora Silver = Trademark of Walker and Hall, Spur Silver = Trademark of E B & Co for Edwin Blyde & Co, Stainless N. S., Stainless Nickel, Stainless Nickel Silver, Venetian Silver - Trademark of Deykin & Sons, WF&SS EP

HALLMARKS OF BRITISH SILVER
The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that allow the identification of the origin and the age of each piece. The marks are:
Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the assay office that has verified the piece
London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion's passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased certifiying the silver's quality

lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718

Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office

Date letter, in cycles of twenty/twentyfive letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the assay office

London date letter 'a'

A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of duty

Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890

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