ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
IH - IZ

MARKS' IMAGES
 A&
 AC
 AD
 AK
 AL
 AZ
 B&
 BB
 BC
 BO
 BP
 BZ
 C&
 CA
 CB
 CC
 CD
 CF
 CG
 CL
 CM
 CS
 CT
 CZ
 D&
 DB
 DC
 DL
 DM
 DZ
 E&
 EA
 EB
 ED
EE 
EH 
EI 
EO 
EP 
EZ 
F& 
FD 
FE 
FJ 
FK 
FZ 
G& 
GB 
GC 
GG 
GH 
GL 
GM 
GR 
GS 
GZ 
H& 
H& 
HA 
HB 
HC 
HE 
HF 
HL 
HM 
HU 
HV 
HZ 
 I&
 IG
 IH
 IL
 IM
 IZ
 J&
 JA
 JB
 JC
 JD
 JG
 JH
 JK
 JL
 JQ
 JR
 JR
 JS
 JS
 JT
 JZ
 K&
 KZ
 L&
 LB
 LC
 LZ
 M&
 MB
 MC
 MI
 MJ
 MZ
N& 
NZ 
O& 
OZ 
P& 
PK 
PL 
PZ 
QA 
QZ 
R& 
RB 
RC 
RG 
RH 
RK 
RL 
RQ 
RR 
RZ 
S& 
SB 
SC 
SI 
SJ 
SR 
SS 
SZ 
T& 
TC 
TD 
TG 
TH 
TN 
 TO
 TS
 TT
 TZ
 U&
 UZ
 V&
 VZ
 W&
 WA
 WB
 WB
 WC
 WC
 WD
 WE
 WF
 WG
 WH
 WL
 WM
 WM
 WN
 WR
 WS
 WS
 WT
 XZ
 YA
 YZ
 Z&
 ZZ
.
.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION



I.H into an oval (John Holloway [ L ] ) entered in 1788
I.H (James Hine [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.H (J Hilliard [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.H (Joshua Hardy [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IH (not identified [GUERNESEY] ) 1730-1780c.
IH under a crown (John Hamilton [ D ] ) 18th c./1st half
IH into a circle (John Harris [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
IH (John Harris [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IH in script (John Holland [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
IH in script (J Henzell -possibly Jacksons- [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
IH over Co (J Hoyland & Co [ S] )
IH & Co (J Hoyland & Co [ S] )
I H over & over R R under a crown (John Hunt & Robert Roskell [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
IHD (James Henry Daniel [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.H.D (James Henry Daniel [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IH over IP (John Hampston & John Prince [ Y] )
I.I (Joseph Jackson [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I over I.D over M into a cross (Jabez Daniel & James Mince [ L ] ) entered 1766
IJ (John Jones [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IJ into a rectangle (not identified [ S ] ) 1977
I.J.K into an oblong rectangle (John James Keith [ L ] ) entered 1824



IK over a rose between two pellets (not identified) London 17th c./2nd half
IK into a rectangle (John Kerschner [ L ] ) entered 1808
IK (James Ker [ E ] ) 18th c./1st half
IK into a rectangle (Jasper Kelly [ L ]) entered 1779
IK in script (Joseph Kinselagh [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.K into a chamfered rectangle (John King [ L ]) entered 1775
I.K (John Keith [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
I.K (James Keating [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
IKIW&Co (James Kirkby, Joseph Waterhouse & Co [ S] ) 19th c./1st half
IKIW over &Co (James Kirkby, Joseph Waterhouse & Co [ S] ) 19th c./1st half
I K over RS (John Keith & Richard Stiff [ L ] )
IL (John Littlewood [ S ]) 19th c./1st half
IL (John Lias [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
IL into a shield (Isadore Leapman [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
I.L (John Laughlin [ D ] ) mid 18th c.
I.L into a rectangle (John Lambe [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
I.L into an oval (John Lambe [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
I.L under a circle (John Langlands I [ N ]) 18th c./2nd half
I.L into an oval (John Langlands II [ N ]) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
I.L (Joseph Law [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.L (Jan Lotter [CAPE] ) 1815 c.
I.L.B (James Le Bas [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.L C (not identified [ L ] ) 1868
IL over HL (John & Henry Lias [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.L over H.L into a square (John & Henry Lias [L]) 19th c./1st half
IL over HL over CL (John & Henry & Charles Lias [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.L over I.G in script into a square (John Langlands I & John Goodrick [N]) mid 18th c.
I.L over I.R (John Langlands I & John Robertson [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
IL over WA (John Linnit & William Atkinson [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.M into a rectangle (not identified [ L ] ) 1812
I.M into a rectangle (John Munns - possibly- [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
IM (John Munslow [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
IM under a crown (John Mewburn [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IM into an oval (John Moore [ L ] ) beginning 19th c.
IM into an oval (Isaac Manheim [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
IM over & over SH under a crown (John Mortimer & John Samuel Hunt [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I M C (Iain MacCormick [ G ] ) mid 20th c.
I.M.Co (Inman Manufacturing Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
IM over ISH (John Mortimer & John Samuel Hunt [ L ] )
I MD (John McDonald [ E ] ) end 18th c./19th c./1st half
I.M.H into an oblong chamfered rectangle (I M Hutchfield [B] ) entered 1919
IM NB and English pseudo hallmarks (John Munro [CANADA] ) 1813-1864
I M S into three circles (John Marshall Spink [ C ][ L ] ) beginning 20th c.
IN into a rectangle (Joseph Nowill [S] ) entered 1782
IN into a rectangle (Jn Newton & Son [S] ) entered 1829
I.N.K into a rectangle (Josiah Kemp [S] ) entered 1779
I.O into a chamfered rectangle (John Oxley [ S ] ) entered 1841




IP into a rectangle (not identified [B] ) 1893
IP (Joseph Pearson [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.P (Isaac Parkin [EX] ) 19th c./1st half
IP & Co into an oblong rectangle (John Parsons & Co [S] ) entered 1783
I P C (I P C Manufacturing Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
I.P over E.W under a fleur de lys (John Parker I & Edward Wakelin [L] ) 19th c./2nd half
I.P over G.P incuse into a square (Josiah & George Piercy [L] ) entered 1812
I.P over I.P (Jonathan Perkins & Jonathan Perkins[L] ) end 18th c.
I.P over W.P (Pittway Bros -John & William Pittway [L] ) 19th c./2nd half
IR (John Reily [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
IR (John Read [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
IR (John Rowbotham II [ S ] ) beginning 19th c.
IR (John Robertson or Robinson [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IR (John Robertson II [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
IR and English pseudo-hallmarks (J. Ross [CANADA]) 1818
I.R into a chamfered rectangle (John Robertson I [ N ] ) entered 1796
I.R into an oval (John Robertson I [ N ] ) entered c. 1795
I.R & Co into an oblong rectangle (John Roberts & Co [ S] ) entered 1805
IRH (John Robert Harris [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IR over IW (John Robertson II & John Walton [ L ][ N ]) 19th c./1st half
IR over WR (John Robertson (II) & John Walton [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
IS under an asterisk (James Smith I [ L ]) entered 1720
IS (Isaac Solomon or John Seymour [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
IS (not identified) Birmingham 1936
IS (John Shaw [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
IS into a rectangle (James Scott [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.S (John Stoyte [ D ] ) end 18th c.
I.S into a rectangle (James Scott [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.S (John Settle & William Hatfield [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half



I.S over G into a shield (Israel Sigmond Greenberg [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
I.S.G ( S Greenberg & Co -Israel Sigmond Greenberg- [ B ][ S ] ) end 19th c./20th c./1st half
ISH into a shield under a crown (John Samuel Hunt [ L ]) entered 1844
IS over HW into a quaterfoil (John Settle & Henry Wilkinson [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.S over T.S (John & Thomas Settle, Gunn & Co [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
IT (Joseph Taylor [ B ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
IT (John Turner [ B ] ) end 18th c.
IT (James Tweedie or John Touliet [ L ] ) end 18th c.
IT into a rectangle (John Thornton [ B ] ) entered 1801
IT into a rectangle (Joseph Thredder or James Trender [L] ) beginning 19th c.
I.T into a rectangle (James Tookey [ L ]) entered 1750
I.T (Joseph Taylor [ B ]) 19th c./1st half
I.T into two conjoined circles (John Tapley [ L ]) entered 1836
I.T (J Thornton [ B ] ) end 18th c.
ITY over &Co into a square (J T Younge Walker & Co [ S]) entered 1797
ITY & Co (John Younge & Sons [ S] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
I.V into an oval (Isaac Vickers [C] ) entered 1867
IV over TC into a square (John Vaughan & Thomas Cotterell [L] ) entered 1845
IW in script into a rectangle(John James Whiting [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
IW in script into a rectangle(John Whiting [ L ] ) entered 1855
IW (John Wright [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW (James Welshman [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW (Joseph Wilson [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW (Joseph Wilson or John Wakefield [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
IW (John Weems [ E ] ) mid 18th c.
IW (John Wilkinson [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW under three stars (James Weems [ E ] ) 18th c./2nd half
IW (John Walton [ N ]) 19th c.
IW (John Walker [ C ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW in script (John James Whiting [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.W into a rectangle (John Watson [ S ] ) entered 1794
I.W into a rectangle (John Watson & Son [ S ] ) entered 1822
I.W into a rectangle (John Wakefield [L]) entered 1818
I.W (J Wilson [ L ] ) beginning 19th c.
IW & Co (John Winter & Co [ S] ) -
IWB (John William Blake [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IW over IR (Jonathan Whip & Jonathan Rose [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.W over R.G (John Wakelin & Robert Garrard [ L ] ) end 18th c.
IWS (John W Story [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IWS over WE (J W Stoey & W Elliott [ L ] )
IW over WM (J Wrangham & William Moulson [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.W over W.T under a fleur de lys (John Wakelin & William Taylor [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.Y into an oval (John Yardley [L] ) entered 1848
IZ (John Zeigler [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half




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The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838






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