HALLMARKS OF ENGLISH SILVER DIRECTORY
MAKER'S MARK IDENTIFICATION

WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS

  created by Giorgio B. owner of
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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF MARKS: FA-FZ
ALPHABETICAL LISTING
OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
| DUTY MARKS | LEOPARD'S HEAD | LONDON MARKS | WOMEN SILVERSMITHS | PSEUDO HALLMARKS | IMPORT MARKS |
| CONTEMPORARY MARKS | HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS | OLD ADVERTISEMENTS | FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES |
  [B] = BIRMINGHAM    [C] = CHESTER  [D] = DUBLIN  [E] = EDINBURGH  [EX] = EXETER  [G] = GLASGOW   
[L] = LONDON  [N] = NEWSCASTLE   [S] = SHEFFIELD   [Y] = YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION
F into a shield (William Fawdery [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
F & Co into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Foxall & Co [ B ] ) entered 1850
F & F inside an oblong chamfered rectangle (Finlay & Field [ G ] ) mid 19th c.
F & S (F Fattorini & Son Ltd [ B ] ) end 19th c./mid 20th c.
F & S into a six sides outline (Fattorini & Sons [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
F & S into two conjoined circles (Fergenbaum & Son [ B ] ) entered 1920
FA under a fleur de lys over a blossom (Thomas Farren [ L ]) entered 1707
FA into a circle (William Fawdery [ L ] ) entered 1697
FA into a heart (John Farnell [ L ] ) entered 1714
FA into a octagon (Francis Adam [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.A.B into an oval (Frederick Augustus Burridge [ L ] ) entered 1894
F.A.E into an oval (not identified [ B ]) 1900
F.A.F over & Co into a square (not identified [ B ]) 1928
FB (Frederick Brasted [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.B (Fanny Benjamin [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.B (F Banks [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.B.C (F Burton Crosbee [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.B.M into a rectangle (Frederick Bradford McCrea -Army & Navy Co-operative Society Ltd- [ L ]) entered 1880
FBM into two circles and a lozenge (Frederick Bradford McCrea [ L ]) entered 1889
F.Bs over Ltd into a shield (Fenton Bros Ltd [ L ][ S ] ) end 19th c.
F.B.T under a fleur de lys (F B Thomas & Co -Francis Boone Thomas- [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
F.C (Francis Crump [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half

FC into a rectangle (Francis Clark [ B ] ) entered 1826
FC into an indented chamfered rectangle (Frank Cobb & Co Ltd [ S ] ) 20th c.
FC (Frederick Courthope [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.C into a rectangle (Francis Clark [ B ] ) entered 1840
F.C.A over &Co into a shield (Frederick C. Asman & Co [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
FC over CH into a square (Frederick Crockford & Charles Hickson - Mappin Brothers [ S ] ) 19th c./2nd half
F.C.R into an oblong chamfered rectangle (F C Richards [ B ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.D (Frederick Davis [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
F.D (Frances Douglas [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
FD (Frances Douglas [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
F.D.L (F D Long [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.D over N.D into a shield (Francis Butty & Nicholas Dumee [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
FE into two conjoined circles (Frederick Elkington [ B ][ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
FE into a shield (Frederick Elkington - possibly- [S] ) 19th c./2nd half
FE (Frederick Edmonds [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
FE over EJ (Frederick Edmonds & Edward J W Johnson [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
F.F (Fleming Forester [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
F.F (Frederick Fox [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
F F into two lozenges (Frederick Field Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
F F & S (F Fattorini & Son Ltd [ B ] ) mid 20th c.
F.G without outline (Frank Gough [ C ]) entered 1901
FG into a triangle (Frederick Green & Sons [ S ]) entered 1896
F G into into two squares (F.Gilbert [ B ]) entered 1899
F.G.B into an oval (F.G. Beech [ B ]) entered 1921
FG over FGT into a triangle (Frederick Green & Sons [ S ]) entered 1898
F.G.R into an oval (F.G. Rose [ B ]) entered 1926
F.H. into a heart (Francis Higgins III or Francis Higgins & Sons Ltd [ L ]) end 19th c./20th c./1st half
FH (Francis Howden [ E ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
FH (Francis Higgins II [ L ]) 19th c.
F H gothic into a heart (The Portland Co -Francis Higgins III- [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
F H into a chamfered rectangle (Frederick Haberling [ L ]) entered 1887
F H (Fernand Haville [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
FH & S over Ltd (Francis Higgins & Sons Limited [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
F H into a circle (Francis Howard Ltd [ G ][ E ][ S ] ) 20th c.
F H into two triangles (F Hawker Ltd [ B ] ) entered 1945
F.H.A & Co (F H Adams & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.H.A & H (F H Adams & Holman [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F.H.A.Ld (F H Adams Ltd [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
F H C S Co Ld into alternate lozenges and circles (F Hawker Carpathian Silver Co Ltd [ B ] ) entered 1927
FHR into an oblong chamfered rectangle (not identified [ L ] ) 1973
FHW into a rectangle (Frederick Henry Weare [ L ] ) entered 1880
FI into a rectangle under a fleur de lys (Robert Finch [ L ]) entered 1697
FI under a 'fish' into a rounded outline (William Fish [ L ]) entered 1706
FIR into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Frederick Redman [ L ]) entered 1860
Fi & Sns into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Fattorini & Sons [ L ]) entered 1907
F.J&S (F Johnson & Sons [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
F.J.R (F J Ross & Sons - Frederick J Ross - [ C ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
F J R into an oblong rectangle (F J Ross & Sons - Frederick J Ross - [ C ][ L ]) 20th c./1st half
F.K under a crown into a rounded outline (Charles I -Frederick- Kandler [ L ]) entered 1758
FK in script into a rectangle under a crown (Charles I -Frederick- Kandler [ L ]) entered 1739
FK into two conjoined circles (Feodore Kotin [ L ]) entered 1899
FK into a circle (Frederick Kenway [ L ]) entered 1912
FK into a rectangle (Frederick Key [ L ]) entered 1853
FK into a shield (Frank -Alfred- Kleinworth [ L ]) entered 1895
FL under a crown (William Fleming [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
FL into an oval (F. Lewis [ B ]) entered 1909
F.L into a rectangle (Frederick Lyne [ C ]) entered 1884
F.L.td into a rectangle (Fears Ltd [ C ]) entered 1910
FL  &  RJ into three separate rounded outlines (Lucas & Johnson [ S ]) entered 1872
F.L.T. into an oblong rectangle (Frederick Leslie Tiley [ L ]) entered 1904
F.Ltd. into a five sides polygon (Fredericks Ltd [ L ]) entered 1906
F over L star H over B in a quaterfoil (Lewis Herne & Francis Butty [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
F.M (Frederick Marson [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.M. and English pseudo-hallmarks (Franz F. Meyer [CANADA]) 1809-1847
FM (Franklin Mint [ B ][ S ]) 20th c./2nd half
F M (Francis Martin [ D ]) 19th c./2nd half
FM over & S into a square (Frederick Mann & Son [D]) 19th c./1st hal
FN into a shaped quadrangular contour (Francis Nelme [L]) entered 1739
FN into a rectangle (Francis Nisbet [ L ]) entered 1856
F.N into a rectangle (Frederick Narborough [B][ C ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.N into a quatrefoil (Frank Neville [ C ]) entered 1960
F.N.W into an oblong shape with two rounded sides (F.N. Walker [ B ]) entered 1882
F.O. into a shield (Frank Osborne [L]) entered 1901
FO over & Co over Ltd into a shield (F. Osborne & Co Ltd [L]) entered 1913
FO over Co Ld into a shaped quadrangular contour (F Osborne & Co Ltd [L]) mid 20th c.
F.O.B. into an oblong rectangle (F O Banyard [C]) entered 1908
F.O over T.O into a square (F.A. Old & T. Old [C]) entered 1911
FORRESTS (Forrests [ B ]) 19th c./1st half

F.P (Francis Pages [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
F P (Francis Parsons [ EX ]) beginning 19th c.
F P (Francis Powell [L]) 19th c./1st half
F P (Francis Pontet [L]) 19th c./1st half
F P (Frederick Purnell [L]) 19th c./2nd half
F P (Frances Purton [L]) 19th c./2nd half
FP over BG ( Francis Parsons (possibly) & B G (not identified) [ EX ]) 19th c./1st half
FQ into an oblong shape with two rounded sides (Frederick Quaintance [L]) entered 1907
FR into an oval (Frederick Rymell [ C ][ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
F.R & Co. over Ld. into a six sides polygon (Fenton, Russel & Co Ltd [ C ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
F R G into a rectangle (F R Baldwin [ B ]) entered 1910
F.R.B into a rectangle (F R Gomm [ B ]) entered 1912
FRR into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Fedor Ramon Rehlender [ L ] ) entered 1911
FS into an oval (Francis Stebbings [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
F.S under a crown (Francis Spilsbury I [ L ]) 18th c./1st half
F.S into a rectangle (Francis Sommerville II [ B ]) beginning 19th c.
FS (Florence Stern [ B ]) entered c. 1901
Fs. Ld. (Finnigans Ltd [ B ][ D ][ L ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
F.S over J.H into a shield (Sibray, Hall & Co -Frederick Sibray & Job Frank Hall- [ L ] [ S ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.S. QUEBEC F.S (Francois Sasseville [CANADA]) 1797-1864
F.S over RA into a shield (F Snow & R Ashworth [ B ][ L ]) 20th c./1st half
FT into two conjoined circles (F. Tyler [ B ]) entered 1919
F.T into an oval (Frederick Trahern [ C ]) entered c. 1887 and 1938
F.T into a triangle (Fred Taylor [ C ][ L ]) entered 1898 and 1901
FTM over TWB into a shield (Francis Thomas Marrian & Tomas William Bocock [ B ][ L ]) entered 1879
F.T.S. into an oblong rectangle (Frederick Thomas Smith [ L ]) entered 1897
FTS into three conjoined circles (Francis Thomas Slade [ L ]) entered 1911
F.V into a rectangle (F Venour [B][C]) 19th c./2nd half
F.V into a rectangle (Frederick Venour jr. [B][C]) entered 1886 and 1882
F.V & S into an oblong rectangle (Frederick Venour & Son - possibly- [C]) entered 1888
FV under a crown (John Furnivall [L]) 18th c./1st half
F.W into a shaped rectangular contour (Fuller White [ L ]) entered 1751
F.W into an oblong oval (Florence Warden [ C ]) entered 1895
F.W into a chamfered rectangle (Francis Webb-Francis Webb Ltd [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
FW in script (Fuller White [ L ]) 18th c./2nd half
FW into a lozenge (Frederick Wich [ B ][ L ]) 20th c./1st half
FW and English pseudo-hallmarks (Fredrik Waldek [CAPE]) 1830 c.
F.W over &Co into a shield (Frederick Wilson & Co [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
F.W over &D (Fentom, Webster & Danby [ S ]) 19th c./1st half
F.W.T.Ld (F W Turton Ltd [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
F.W.T over Ld into a shield (F W Turton Ltd [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
FW over WD into a shield (Frederick Wilson & William Davis [ L ][ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
FY into an oval (Frederick Young [C]) entered 1902
FYF into a pointed quatrefoil shape (Frederick Yonge Fox [L]) entered 1868
FYF into three conjoined round outlines (Frederick Yonge Fox [L]) entered 1868
The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of the origin and the age of each silver piece manufactured or traded in the UK. The marks are:

Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the Assay Office that has verified the piece
London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifiying the silver quality
lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718
Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office
London date letter 'a'
A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty
Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890
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