ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
CI - CZ

MARKS' IMAGES
 A&
 AC
 AD
 AK
 AL
 AZ
 B&
 BB
 BC
 BO
 BP
 BZ
 C&
 CA
 CB
 CC
 CD
 CF
 CG
 CL
 CM
 CS
 CT
 CZ
 D&
 DB
 DC
 DL
 DM
 DZ
 E&
 EA
 EB
 ED
EE 
EH 
EI 
EO 
EP 
EZ 
F& 
FD 
FE 
FJ 
FK 
FZ 
G& 
GB 
GC 
GG 
GH 
GL 
GM 
GR 
GS 
GZ 
H& 
H& 
HA 
HB 
HC 
HE 
HF 
HL 
HM 
HU 
HV 
HZ 
 I&
 IG
 IH
 IL
 IM
 IZ
 J&
 JA
 JB
 JC
 JD
 JG
 JH
 JK
 JL
 JQ
 JR
 JR
 JS
 JS
 JT
 JZ
 K&
 KZ
 L&
 LB
 LC
 LZ
 M&
 MB
 MC
 MI
 MJ
 MZ
N& 
NZ 
O& 
OZ 
P& 
PK 
PL 
PZ 
QA 
QZ 
R& 
RB 
RC 
RG 
RH 
RK 
RL 
RQ 
RR 
RZ 
S& 
SB 
SC 
SI 
SJ 
SR 
SS 
SZ 
T& 
TC 
TD 
TG 
TH 
TN 
 TO
 TS
 TT
 TZ
 U&
 UZ
 V&
 VZ
 W&
 WA
 WB
 WB
 WC
 WC
 WD
 WE
 WF
 WG
 WH
 WL
 WM
 WM
 WN
 WR
 WS
 WS
 WT
 XZ
 YA
 YZ
 Z&
 ZZ
.
.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION



C.J&Co (Christopher Johnson & Co [ S ] )20th c./1st half
C.J over A into a shield (Charles James Allen [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
CJF into a rectangle (Charles James Fox [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
CJ over FB into a shield (Charlie Jacques & Frederick Bartholomew [ L ] ) beginning 20th c.
CJR under a crown into a clover (Reid & Sons (Christian John Reid) [ N ] ) 19th c./2nd half
CJS ( Cyril Siner [ B ] )
CJV over Ld into a trefoil (C J Vander Ltd [ L ] ) mid 20th c.
CJV over Ld in script into a trefoil (C J Vander Ltd [ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
CJV over Ltd (C J Vander Ltd [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
CJ over V into a trefoil (C J Vander Ltd [ S ] ) 21th c.
CK (Charles Kandler [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
CK into a rectangle (Charles Kirchman [ C ] [ L ]) beginning 20th c.
CL under a crown (Charles Leslie [ D ] )18th c./1st half
CL (Charles Lias [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
C.L (Charles Lambe [ D ] )end 19th c.-20th c./1st half
C.L &S into an oval (Charles Lyster & Son [ B ] [ C ]) end 19th c.-20th c./1st half
C.L.S (not identified) London 1919
CLtd into two conjoined circles (not identified) Birmingham 1994



CM into a rectangle (Charles May [ B ][ L ] ) end 19th c.-20th c./1st half
CM into a rectangle (Charles Marsh [ D ]) 19th c./1st half
CM into an oval (Charles Leopold Maas trading as Charles Maas & Co [C][L]) end19th c./beginning 20th c.
C enclosing m into a shield (The Churchill Mint [ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
C.M into a rectangle (Charles Marsh [ D ]) 19th c./1st half
C.M into a thin rectangle (Charles Maas [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
CME (not identified) Birmingham 1977
CNL into a chamfered rectangle (Christopher Lawrence [ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
CO under a spoon (Stephen Coleman [ L ]) entered 1697
CO under a device with three dots over two circles and a blossom (Robert Cooper [ L ]) entered 1697
CO under a fleur de lys (Augustine Courtauld [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
C.O.R into a rectangle (Charles Owen Rogers [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
C.P (Charles Price [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
CP (Charles Plumley [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
C.P&Co into two conjoned ovals (Charles Perry & Co [ B ][ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
C.P&C.Ld (Charles Packer & Co Ltd [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
CPB (Charles Penny Brown [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
C.P.S into an oval CPS Jewellery Company Ltd [ B ] ) 20th c./2nd half
CR (Charles Robb [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
CR into a rectangle (Charles Reeves -possibly- [ L ] ) entered 1853
CR into an oval (Christian Ker Reid [ N ]) 19th c./1st half
C.R into a rectangle (Charles Rawlings [ L ] ) entered 1826
CR&S (Charles Robb & Sons [ E ] )19th c./2nd half
C.R.&S into an oblong rectangle (C Robathan & Son [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
CR over A (Charles Ashbee [ L ] )
CR over DR (Reid & Son of Newcastle -Christian Ker Reid & David Reid- [ E ][ L ][ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
CR over DR into a quatrefoil (Reid & Son of Newcastle) (Christian Ker Reid & David Reid [ L ][ N ] ) 19th c./1st half




CR over DR over CR into an oblong curved outline (Reid & Sons -Christian Ker Reid, David Reid & Christian Bruce Reid) [ N ]) entered 1833
CRICHTON (George Crichton [Perth][ E ]) mid 19th c.
CR over GS into a quatrefoil (Charles Reily & George Storer [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
CR over WS (Charles Rawlings & William Summers [L]) 19th c./1st half
C.S (Charles Stewart [ D ][ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
C.S into a rectangle (Charles Shipway [ L ] ) entered 1826
CS into a rectangle (Charles Shipway ) entered 1836
CS into two conjoined circles Chantry Silversmiths Limited London 1975
CS over & over Hs into a trefoil (C.S. Harris & Sons Ltd [ L ]) entered 1904
CS FS into two separate rectangles (Cornelius Saunders & Frank Shepherd [ C ][ L ]) entered 1888
CS star FS (Cornelius Desormeaux Saunders & James Francis Hollings -Frank- Shepherd [ L ][ B ][ C ][ S ] ) end 19th c. - 20th c./1st half
CSG over &Co into a shield (Charles S Green & Co [ B ] ) 20th c.
C over S Ld into a trefoil (Courtman Silver Ltd [ B ][ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half - present
C.S.H (Charles Stuart Harris [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
C.S over H into a trefoil (Charles Stuart Harris [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
CT (Charles Thomas [ B ] )
C T into triangles (Cavalier Tableware [ B ][ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
C.T.B into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Charles Turman Burrows -C T Burrows & Sons- [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
CTF over GF (Charles Thomas Fox and George Fox [ L ]) 19th c.
CT over I.VW (Carden Terry & Jane Williams [ D ][CORK]) 19th c./1st half



C.T.M (Charles T Maine - Jersey- [L]) 20th c./1st half
C T over TTT (Charles & Thomas Terret Taylor [ EX ][ L ]) 19th c./1st half
C over T.W (Thomas & William Chawner [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
C over T.W over W into an oval (Thomas Whipham II & Charles Wright [L]) 18th c./2nd half
CU (Charles Union [ Y ]) end 18th c.
C.U into a rectangle (Reuben Usher trading as Charles Usher [ B ][ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
C.U without contour or into a rectangle (Reuben Percival Usher trading as The Usher Manufacturing Co [ B ][ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
C.V into a rectangle (Charles Vale, Henry Vale & Rowland Sermon trading as Vale Brothers & Sermon [ C ] ) entered in 1892
C W into two squares (Charles Weale [ B] ) entered 1902
CW (Charles Wright [ L] ) 18th c./2nd half
C W (Charles Watson [ L] ) 19th c./2nd half
CW into two conjoined circles (Charles Wallis [ L] ) 19th c./2nd half
CW into a rectangle with cut upper corners (not identified [L] ) 1927
C.W (Charles Wilkes [B] ) 20th c./1st half
CW&S (Charles Westwood & Sons [ B] ) 20th c./1st half
CW&Sns (C.Widmer & Sons [ L] ) end 19th c.
CWC (C W Cheshire [ B] ) mid 19th c.
CWCo (Cronin & Wheeler [ B] ) mid 19th c.
CWF (C W Fletcher & Son Ltd [ L][ S] ) 20th c./1st half
C.W.F into an oval (Charles William Fletcher [ L][ S] ) 20th c./1st half
CWQ (Charles William Quesnel [ Jersey] )
C.W.S.D into an oblong rectangle (Charles Washington Shirley Deakin [B]) entered 1854
CWS Ld (Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd [B][C] ) end 19th c.-20th c./1st half
CyBs into a rectangle (William Henry Coley trading as Coley Brothers [ C ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.




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The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838






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