ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
QA - RJ
AA/AE    AF/AZ    BA/BZ    CA/CH    CI/CZ    DA/DZ    EA/EZ    FA/FZ    GA/GZ    HA/HG    HH/HZ    IA/IG    IH/IZ    JA/JC    JD/JI    JJ/JP    JQ/JS    JT/JZ    KA/LZ    MA/MZ    NA/PA    PB/PZ    QA/RJ    RK/RZ    SA/SG    SH/SZ    TA/TH    TI/TZ    UA/WB    WC/WF    WG/WL    WM/WS    WT/ZZ   

MARKS' IMAGES
A&/AC    AD/AK    AL/AZ    B&/BB    BC/BO    BP/BZ    C&/CA    CB/CC    CD/CF    CG/CL    CM/CS    CT/CZ    D&/DB    DC/DL    DM/DZ    E&/EA    EB/ED    EE/EH    EI/EO    EP/EZ    F&/FD    FE/FJ    FK/FZ    G&/GB    GC/GG    GH/GL    GM/GR    GS/GZ    H&/H&    HA/HB    HC/HE    HF/HL    HM/HU    HV/HZ    I&/IG    IH/IL    IM/IZ    J&/JA    JB/JC    JD/JG    JH/JK    JL/JQ    JR/JR    JS/JS    JT/JZ    K&/KZ    L&/LB    LC/LZ    M&/MB    MC/MI    MJ/MZ    N&/NZ    O&/OZ    P&/PK    PL/PZ    QA/QZ    R&/RB    RC/RG    RH/RK    RL/RQ    RR/RZ    S&/SB    SC/SI    SJ/SR    SS/SZ    T&/TC    TD/TG    TH/TN    TO/TS    TT/TZ    U&/UZ    V&/VZ    W&/WA    WB/WB    WC/WC    WD/WE    WF/WG    WH/WL    WM/WM    WN/WR    WS/WS    WT/XZ    Y&/YZ    Z&/ZZ   

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X/Y    Z   

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION


R&B (Roberts & Belk -Samuel Roberts & Charles Belk- [ S ]) 19th c./2nd half
R&B (Roberts & Belk Ltd [ B ][ C ][ E ][ G ][ L ][ S ]) end 19th c.- 20th c./1st half
R&B (Roberts & Briggs -Samuel Roberts & William Briggs- [ S ] ) 19th c./2nd half
R& Co or R&Co into a six sides contour (Rattray & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
R & Co into three conjoined circles (Robinson & Co Ltd [ B ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
R & D (Roberts & Dore [ B ][ L ][ S ]) 20th c.
R & D into a chamfered rectangle (Roberts & Dore (possibly) [ L ]) 20th c.
R & K (Richards & Knight [ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half
R& M (Read & Morris [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
R&S (Rettie & Son [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
R&S (not identified [B] ) 1842
R& S (Roberts & Slater -Samuel Roberts & Joseph Slater- [ S ] ) mid 19th c.
R&S gothic into three conjoined circles (Reid & Sons [ C ][ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
R&S into three circles (Reid & Sons [ B ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
R&S (Reid & Sons [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
R&S Ld gothic into three conjoined circles (Reid & Sons Ltd [ B ][ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
R&W into a shaped cartouche (Robb & Whittet [ E ]) mid 19th c.
R&W into an oblong rectangle (Reynolds & Westwood [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
R& over WS into a quatrefoil (Robert & William Sorley [ C ][ D ][ G ][ L ][S ] ) 20th c./1st half
RA into an oval (Robert Allison [ E ][ G ] ) 20th c./2nd half
R.A under a crown (Robert Abercrombie [ L ]) entered 1731
R.A in script into two conjoined circles (Robert Abercromby [ L ] ) entered 1739
RA over WS (Richard William Atkins & William Nathaniel Somersall [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RAM over SEY (Edward Ramsey [ EX ] ) mid 19th c.



RB in script (Richard Bayley [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
RB in script under a crown (Richard Beale [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
RB (Robert Breading [ D ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
RB in script (Harrods Ltd -Richard Burbridge- [ C ][ D ] [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
RB into a circle (Reginald Beale [ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half
R.B (Richard Binley [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.B or RB into a chamfered rectangle (Richard Britton [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.B (not identified [ B ] ) 1924
RB& R (Rundell, Bridge & Rundell [ L ] )
RBLd into an oblong rectangle (Reign Beau Ltd [ B ]) end 20th c.
RBros (Randle Bros [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.Bs into an oblong rectangle (Rolason Brothers [ B ][ C ] ) end 19th c/ beginning 20th
R.C (Robert Cox [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RC into an oval (Robert Calderwood [ D ] ) 18th c./1st half
RC (Robert Clark [ E ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RC in script (Richard Clark [ Y ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RC (Robert Cattle [ Y ]) 19th c./1st half
RC (Richard Crossley [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
RC (R Chawner [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
R.C into two conjoined ovals (Richard Cooke [ L ] ) entered 1799
R.C into an oval (Robert Chandler [ B ] ) beginning 20th c.
RC over a dot into a shield (Richard Comyns [ L ] ) 20th c.
RC into a hexagon (R. Carr Ltd [ B ][ E ][S ] ) end 20th c.
RC over GS (Richard Crosley & George Smith IV [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
RC over JB (Robert Cattle & James Barber [ Y ]) 19th c./1st half

RD (Robert Death [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
RD into two conjoined circles (Robert Dicker [ L ] ) entered 1873
RD into an oval (Richard Duncan [ N ]) 19th c./1st half
RD into a chamfered rectangle (Robert Victor Dumenil [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
R.D&Co into an oblong chamfered rectangle (R Davis & Co [ B ] ) entered 1944
R over D.H over H (David Hennell I & Robert Hennell [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R over D.S over S in quaterfoil (Daniel Smith & Robert Sharp [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.E.A (Robinson, Edkins & Aston [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
RE over EB into a quatrefoil (Rebecca Emes & Edward Barnard [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RE over HE into a shield (Rupert Flavell & Henry Elliot [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
R.E.S (Robert Edgar Stone [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.E over W.E in script into a quatrefoil (Rebecca & William Emes [ L ] ) entered 1808
RF into a rectangle (Richard Ferris [ EX ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
R.F into a shield (Rupert Favell [ L ] ) entered 1879
RFF into a circle (Robert Frederick Fox [ L ] ) entered 1910
RFM in script intertwined (R F Mosley & Co Ltd -Robert Fead Mosley- [S ] ) entered 1907
R F M into a shield, a circle and a lozenge (R F Mosley & Co -Robert Fead Mosley- [S ] ) entered 1883
R.F.M into three conjoined circles (Robert Fead Mosley & Co [S] ) mid 20th c.
R.G (Richard Garde [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
RG (Robert Gainsford [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RG (Robert Gray [ E ][ G ] ) end 18th c/ beginning 19th
RG in script (Richard Gosling [ L ] ) mid 18th c.



RG (Robert Gordon [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
RG in script under a crown (R & S Garrard & Co -Robert Garrard II- [ L ] ) 19th c.
RG (Robert Green -possibly- [ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.G (Robert Garrard I [ L ] ) beginning 19th c.
RG over &S (Robert Gray & Son [ E ][ G ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.G.L (R G Laurie [ B ] ) beginning 20th c.
R.G under T over C into a quatrefoil (Thomas Cooke II & Richard Gurney or Richard Gurney & Co [ S ] ) entered 1727
RH into an oval (Robert Hennell I [ L ]) end 18th c.
RH (Robert Hennell II [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
RH into a shield (Robert Hutton [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
RH and English pseudo-hallmarks (Robert Hendery or Hendery & Leslie [Montreal - CANADA]) c.1870/1900
R-H (Robert Hare [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
R.H into an oval (Robert Hennell [ L ] ) end 18th c/ 19th c.
R.H into a rectangle (Robert Hennell II -possibly- [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
RH into two circles (Robert Harper [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
R.H into an oval (Robert Hennell I [ L ]) end 18th c.
R.H into a shield (Robert Humphries [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
R.H (Robert Hennel III [ L ]) mid 19th c.
R.H into an oval (Rowland Hill -possibly- [ C ]) end 19th c.
RH over & over SON into a quaterfoil (R Hodd & Son [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
RH over & over Sns into a shield (R H Halford & Sons [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
RH over & over Sns over Ld into a shield (R H Halford & Sons Ltd [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
RH over DH (Robert Hennell and David Hennell [ L ]) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
RH over DH over SH (Robert, David &Samuel Hennell [L]) 19th c./1st half

RHF (not identified [ B ]) 1999
RHJ&S (R.H. Jones & Sons [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
RH over RH into a quaterfoil (Richard Hodd & Son -Richard Hodd I & Richard Hodd II- [ L ] ) 18th c/2nd half
RH over S into a pentagon (R.Hovenden & Sons [ B ][ C ][ L ]) end 19th c.
RH over SH (Robert Hennell and Samuel Hennell [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
RH over WL (Linley & Hodd -Richard Hodd I & William Linley [L]) 19th c./2nd half
R 'star' I into a heart (Robert Inglis -possibly- [ E ]) 18th c./1st half
RIJ (Royal Irish Silver Co -possibly- [ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
RJ (Robert Jones [ Y ]) c. 1790
R.J into a chamfered rectangle (Robert William Jay [ L ]) entered 1898
R.J into a rectangle and a lozenge (Reuben Jordan -possibly- [ C ][ L ]) 20th c./1st half
R.J.H into an oblong rectangle (Robert John Harvey [ L ]) entered 1848



BRITISH TOWN MARKS AND DATE LETTERS

|DUTY MARKS|    |LEOPARD'S HEAD|    |LONDON MARKS|    |WOMEN SILVERSMITHS|    |PSEUDO HALLMARKS|    |IMPORT MARKS|    |CONTEMPORARY MARKS|    |JOURNEYMAN MARKS|    |HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS|    |OLD ADVERTISEMENTS|    |FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES|    |ARTICLES ON ENGLISH SILVER|   


The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838




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