HALLMARKS OF ENGLISH SILVER DIRECTORY
MAKER'S MARK IDENTIFICATION

WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS

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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF MARKS: KA-LZ
ALPHABETICAL LISTING
OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
| DUTY MARKS | LEOPARD'S HEAD | LONDON MARKS | WOMEN SILVERSMITHS | PSEUDO HALLMARKS | IMPORT MARKS |
| CONTEMPORARY MARKS | HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS | OLD ADVERTISEMENTS | FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES |
  [B] = BIRMINGHAM    [C] = CHESTER  [D] = DUBLIN  [E] = EDINBURGH  [EX] = EXETER  [G] = GLASGOW   
[L] = LONDON  [N] = NEWSCASTLE   [S] = SHEFFIELD   [Y] = YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION
K&D into two conjoined circles (not identified [S] ) 1939
K&D into a rectangle (Ker & Dempster [E] ) mid 18th c.
K & H over Ltd into a lozenge (Kimberley & Hewett Ltd [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
K&M into an oblong rectangle (Kelly Marshall & Co (possibly) [B] ) beginning 20th c.
K & N into three conjoined circles (not identified [B] ) 1907
K & P without frame (Kapp & Peterson [D] ) 20th c./1st half
K & S inside a rectangle (Kendall & Sons [L] ) 20th c./1st half
KAS into an oval (Kathryn Ann Smith alias Kathryn Ann Stuart [ E ] ) 1988
K.B (Kemp Bros [ B ][ C ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
K.B into a rectangle (Kemp Bros [ C ] [ L ] ) beginning 20th c.
K.B into an oval (Kippan Brothers Ltd [ C ] ) entered 1899
KC into an oval (Kenna Kirsten Crawford [ E ] ) entered 1990
K.D into a rectangle (Katharine Dawson [ E ] ) entered 1957
KE into an oval (Keryn Jane Lenman Evely [ E ] ) entered 1976
KELLY into an oblong rectangle (James Joseph Kelly [ D ] ) beginning 20th c.
KFLd into a rectangle (Keyford Frames Ltd [ B ][ L ]) end 20th c.
Kg & Sns into an oblong rectangle (King & Sons [ B ][ C ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
K H into two lozenges (Kathrin Hardie [ L ] ) 21th c.
KHS into a rectangle (Keith Smith [ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half
KI into a circle (Keith Ingram [ E ] ) entered 1969
K.J.&.Co. into a rectangle (Kay, Jones & Co [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
KK into a rectangle (Karl Karlsson [ L ] ) entered 1903
KK into a lozenge (Kenneth Knight Ltd [ C ] ) entered 1924
KLd (Kigu Ltd [ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
K.Ltd (Kirwan & Co Ltd (possibly) [ B ] ) 20th c.
KM over & Co over Ld into shield (Kemp Brothers [ L ] ) entered 1904
Kp BROs into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Kemp Brothers [ B ][ C ][ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
K.P over & over L into a shield (Kleinwort, Peerless & Lewis [ L ] ) entered 1908
K over S I over A into an oval (Keswick School of Industrial Art [ B ][ C ][ E ] ) end of 19th c./20th c./1st half
KW over E C (Kitchen, Walker & Curr [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half

L&A.O into an oval (Louis & Alfred Orlik trading as L&A Orlik [ B ][ C ][ L ] ) beginning 20th c.
L&B (Law & Bayly [ D ] ) end 18th c.
L&B into a rectangle (Larder & Burgess [ S ] ) entered 1904
L& C (Lea & Clark [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
L& C (W.Lea & Co [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
L&Co (John Lawrence -say Ledsam Vale & Co. be their authority- [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
L&Co into three lozenges (Liberty & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
L & over Co into a quatrefoil (Lawson & Co [ G ] ) 20th c./1st half
L & Co into an oval (Loewe & Co [L] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
L & P over Ltd into a shield (Lindsay & Paisley Ltd [B][G] ) 20th c./1st half
L&R (Lothian & Robertson [E ] ) 18th c./2nd half
L&R (John Langlands I & John Robertson [N ] ) 18th c./2nd half
L&R inside a rectangle (Lothian & Robertson [ E ]) mid 18th c.
L&S (Levi & Salaman -Phineas Harris Levi & Joseph Wolfe Salaman [ B ] [ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
L&W into a rectangle (not identified [ S ]) 1947
LA (Lawrence Aitchison [ G ] ) mid 19th c.
LA under a crown under a star over a fleur de lys (Paul de Lamerie [ L ] ) entered 1713
LA without frame (Louis Adler [ B ] ) entered 1897
LAC (Lionel Alfred Crichton -Crichton Brothers / Crichton & Co- [ C ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
LAW (William Law [ D ] ) 19th c.
LAW under a crown into a clover (West & Son -Langley Archer West- [ L ] ) entered 1894
LAW and TT (William Law and Thomas Tudor [ D ]) 19th c./1st half
L.B (Leech Brothers [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
L.B without frame (Louis Blumfeld trading as Adolph Frankau & Co Ltd [ B ][ L ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
LB and English pseudo-hallmarks (Lodewyk Beck [CAPE] ) 1850 c.
LB over &Co and English pseudo-hallmarks (Lattery Brothers [Calcutta INDIA] ) end 19th c.
LB &Co (L Bennet & Co [ B ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
L.B&M into an oblong rectangle (Lines, Bunn & Mason [B] ) end 19th c.
L over B M over M into a quatrefoil (Marlow Brothers [L] ) 20th c./2nd half
LC over & over C Ld into a quaterfoil (Liberty & Co Ltd [ B ] ) beginning 20th c.
L.C over G.C into a quatrefoil (Louisa Coultauld & George Cowles [L] ) 18th c./2nd half
L.D (Louis Ducomieu [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
L.D (Louis Dee [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
L.D into an oval (Louis Dessoutter [L] ) entered 1897
L.E (Lawrence Emanuel [ B ] ) end of 19th c./20th c./1st half
LE into a square (Lawrence Emanuel [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
L.E.Mc.C (L E McCann [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
L.F.B&Co into a rectangle (L.F. Brenner & Co [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
LG intertwined into a shield (Lambert & Co - George Lambert- [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
LGD (Leslie Durbin [ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half
L.H into an oval (Leopold Heinzelmann [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
LH and English pseudo-hallmarks (Louis Hulsman [CANADA] ) 1799-1815
LJM into a circle (L J Millington [ B ] ) end 20th c./beginning 21st c.
LK into a rectangle (Laurence Keary [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
LI into a rectangle (John Lingard [ L ] ) entered 1718
L.I into a lobed contour (Lawrence Johnson [ L ] ) entered 1751
L.I into a chamfered rectangle (Lucien Inger [ L ] ) entered 1889
LL (Joseph Law, John Oxley & Henry Atkin [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
LL into an oval (L. Links [ E ] ) 21st c.
L.L without frame (Louis Landsberg [ L ] ) entered 1890
L.Ltd (Lanson Ltd [ B ] ) 20th c.

LM into a rectangle (Lewis Mettayer [ L ] ) entered 1720
LM into a rectangle (Louis Minoggio [ L ] ) entered 1871
LM into a shield (Louis Movio [ L ] ) entered 1894
LMS into three conjoined circles (Lillian Molyneux Stubbs [ C ] ) 19th c./2nd half
LN (Laurence Nowlan [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
LO under a 'key' over a dot (Nathaniel Lock [ L ] ) entered 1699
LP (Lewis Pantin [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
L.P &A (Lloyd, Paine & Amiel [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
L.R (Loewe Rosenthal [ L ] ) end 19th c.
LR&Co into four circles (not identified [ S ] ) 1934
L.R.Ltd without contour (Louis Raynor Ltd [ C ] ) entered 1916
LRW into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Lawrence R Watson & Co Ltd [ B ][ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
LS (Lewis Samuel [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
L.S (L Spiers [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
L.S. (not identified [ L ] ) 1951
L.S &Co into a lozenge (Lionel Smith & Co [ B ][ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
L.T and English pseudo-hallmarks (Lawrence Twentyman [CAPE] ) 1830 c.
LU (Leonard Urquhart [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
L.V &W (Ledsam, Vale & Wheeler [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
LW into a chamfered shape (Louis Willmott [L] ) entered 1906
L.W over H.H into a shield (Louis Weill & Henry Harburg [L] ) entered 1876
Ly & Co (Liberty & Co [ E ][ L ] ) 20th c.
The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of the origin and the age of each silver piece manufactured or traded in the UK. The marks are:

Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the Assay Office that has verified the piece
London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifiying the silver quality
lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718
Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office
London date letter 'a'
A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty
Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890
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