ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
UA - WB

MARKS' IMAGES
 A&
 AC
 AD
 AK
 AL
 AZ
 B&
 BB
 BC
 BO
 BP
 BZ
 C&
 CA
 CB
 CC
 CD
 CF
 CG
 CL
 CM
 CS
 CT
 CZ
 D&
 DB
 DC
 DL
 DM
 DZ
 E&
 EA
 EB
 ED
EE 
EH 
EI 
EO 
EP 
EZ 
F& 
FD 
FE 
FJ 
FK 
FZ 
G& 
GB 
GC 
GG 
GH 
GL 
GM 
GR 
GS 
GZ 
H& 
H& 
HA 
HB 
HC 
HE 
HF 
HL 
HM 
HU 
HV 
HZ 
 I&
 IG
 IH
 IL
 IM
 IZ
 J&
 JA
 JB
 JC
 JD
 JG
 JH
 JK
 JL
 JQ
 JR
 JR
 JS
 JS
 JT
 JZ
 K&
 KZ
 L&
 LB
 LC
 LZ
 M&
 MB
 MC
 MI
 MJ
 MZ
N& 
NZ 
O& 
OZ 
P& 
PK 
PL 
PZ 
QA 
QZ 
R& 
RB 
RC 
RG 
RH 
RK 
RL 
RQ 
RR 
RZ 
S& 
SB 
SC 
SI 
SJ 
SR 
SS 
SZ 
T& 
TC 
TD 
TG 
TH 
TN 
 TO
 TS
 TT
 TZ
 U&
 UZ
 V&
 VZ
 W&
 WA
 WB
 WB
 WC
 WC
 WD
 WE
 WF
 WG
 WH
 WL
 WM
 WM
 WN
 WR
 WS
 WS
 WT
 XZ
 YA
 YZ
 Z&
 ZZ
.
.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION



U & H into a rectangle (Unite & Hilliard -George Unite & James Hilliard- [ B ]) entered 1825
U.Co (The Uricara Co [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
UC (United Cutlers Ltd [ S ]) end 20th c.
URQUHART over PERTH (John Urquhart [ E ]) 19th c./1st half
V & C into a lozenge (Vale & Charles [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
V & J (Villiers & Jackson [ B ][ C ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
V & S into a rectangle (Vaughton & Sons [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
V & St.J (Vale & St John Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
V B into two circles (V Brittain [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
VB over & S into a shield (Vale Bros & Sermon [ B ][ C ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
V.B.V & Co into three conjoined rectangles (V.B. Vickers & Co [ S ] ) 20th c./first half
VENNING and English pseudo-hallmarks (J.H. Venning [CANADA]) 1850-1877
V over JS into a trefoil (Veronica Jane Shaw [ L ]) 21st c./1st half
V.L (The Goldsmiths Emporium (Victor Luxenburg) [ C ]) 20th c./1st half
V. Ltd (Viners Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
VN into a triangle (not identified [ L ]) 1978
VW without outline (not identified [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W (George Waterhouse & Co [ D ]) 19th c./1st half
W under a crown (West & Son [ D ]) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
W & B into an oval (Watson & Bell [ Y ]) 19th c./1st half
W & C into a rectangle (Wheeler & Cronin -Mary Wheeler & James Bartholomew Cronin- [ B ]) entered 1842
W & C M (W & C Manton [ B ]) 19th c./2nd half
W & Co into two squares and a lozenge (Wolfsky & Co [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
W & Co into an oval (Wolfsky & Co [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
W & Co (S) into an oval (not identified [S ]) 1928
W 'star' 'star' & Co (White & Co [ B ][ C ] ]) 19th c./2nd half
W & E T (William & Edward Turnpenny [ B ]) 19th c./1st half
W & F (John Wright & George Fairbairn [ S ]) 19th c./1st half



W & F R into a chamfered rectangle (W & F Rabone - Walter Hayes Rabone & Frank Rabone [ B ][ C ]) 20th c./1st half
W & G into shield (Wilson & Gill [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W & H into a flag (Walker & Hall [ B ][ C ][ L ][ S ]) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
W&H into an oblong rectangular contour (Walker & Hall [ B ][ C ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
W &K into an oblong rectangle (Wardell & Kempson [ B ]) entered 1815
W & over PC (Walter & Patrick Cunningham [ E ]) 19th c./1st half
W&S in a clover (West & Co [ D ][ S ]) mid 20th c.
W & S into two circles (Wilson & Sharp [ B ][ L ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
W & S into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Wilson & Sharp [ E ][ G ]) 19th c./2nd half/ beginning 20th c.
W & S in script (Wilson & Sharp [ E ]) beginning 20th c.
W. & S. into a shield (Wilson & Sharp [ E ]) 19th c./2nd half
WA (William Aytoun [ E ]) 18th c./1st half
WA (William Astley [ Y ]) 19th c./1st half
WA (W Allan [ G ]) mid 19th c.
W.A into a rectangle or a chamfered rectangle (William Adams Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W.A (William Abdy II [ L ]) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
W.A. in script into an oval (William Allen III [ L ]) end 18th c.
W.A into two conjoined circles (William Aitken [ B ][ C ]) end 19th c.
W.A into an oval (William Aitken [ B ][ C ]) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
W.A into a rectangle (not identified [ L ]) 1970
WA over &Co (William Allanson & Co [ S ]) 19th c./1st half

W.A.H into a rectangle (W.A. Humphries Ltd -Walter Albert Humphries- [ B ]) 20th c./ 2nd half
W over AL over L (William & Aaron Lestourgeon [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
W over AL over L into an octagon (William & Aaron Lestourgeon [L ]) 18th c./2nd half
W.A.P.W into an oval (W A P Watson Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./ 1st half
WB and two stars into a quatrefoil (William Base [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
WB in script (William Bond [ D ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
WB (Walter Brind [L ]) 18th c./2nd half
WB into a rectangle (Walter Bayley I [L ]) entered 1759
WB into a rectangle (William Bennett [ L ] ) entered 1796
WB in Italic characters into a chamfered rectangle (William Barrett II [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WB into an oval cartouche (William Barrott [ L ] ) entered 1807
WB into a chamfered rectangle (William Barrett II [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WB into a rectangle (William Bateman II [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WB (attributed to William Boot [ B ]) 19th c./1st half
WB into two circles (William Brown [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WB in script (William Burwash [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
W.B (W M Birch [L ]) 18th c./2nd half
W*B into an oval cartouche (William Bagnall [ L ]) entered 1744
W.B (Walter Bird -possibly- [ G ]) mid 19th c.
W.B into two curve conjoined outlines (William Bateman I [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
W.B (Walter Brind [L ]) 18th c./2nd half
W.B into two circles (William Brown [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
WB over &Co (William Birks & Co [ S ]) 18th c./2nd half
WB & Co (William Briggs & Co [ B ][S ]) end 19th c.
WB&S (Attributed to William Bruford & Son [ L ]) mid 20th c.
W.B over &S into a shield (W Batty & Sons [ S ]) 20th c./1st half



W.B under & over S into a quatrefoil (William Base & Sons [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
WB over DB into a quatrefoil (William Bateman II & Daniel Ball [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
WB over IB (Wilkes & John Booth [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
W.B over Ld into a heart (Williams Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W.B over L.d into a heart (Williams (Birmingham) Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
wBj into a shield (Walter & John Barnard [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
wBj over ms over rd into a shield (Edward Barnard & Sons Ltd [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
wBj over ms (Edward Barnard & Sons Ltd [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
WB over JA (W. Briggs & Co [ S] )
WB over RS (Wiliam Burwash & Richard Sibley [ L ] )
W.B over Ld into a heart (Williams (Birmingham) Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
W B over Ltd over & S into a quatrefoil (William Bruford & Son Ltd [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
W.Bros (not identified [S ]) 1971
W.B over R.S (William Burwash & Richard Sibley [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
W.B over W.S (William Brown & William Nathaniel Somersall [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half




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The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838






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