HALLMARKS OF ENGLISH SILVER DIRECTORY
MAKER'S MARK IDENTIFICATION

WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS

  created by Giorgio B. owner of
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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF MARKS: GA-GZ
ALPHABETICAL LISTING
OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
| DUTY MARKS | LEOPARD'S HEAD | LONDON MARKS | WOMEN SILVERSMITHS | PSEUDO HALLMARKS | IMPORT MARKS |
| CONTEMPORARY MARKS | HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS | OLD ADVERTISEMENTS | FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES |
  [B] = BIRMINGHAM    [C] = CHESTER  [D] = DUBLIN  [E] = EDINBURGH  [EX] = EXETER  [G] = GLASGOW   
[L] = LONDON  [N] = NEWSCASTLE   [S] = SHEFFIELD   [Y] = YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION



G& Co into two conjoined circles (C.Griffiths & Co [B]) 20th c./1st half
G& Co into two conjoined circles (Sidney Thomas Oldridge -Grey & Co-[ L ]) entered 1887
G & Co over Ld into a trefoil (Garrard & Co Ltd [B][L][S]) 20th c./2nd half
G & Co over Ld into a trefoil (Gibson & Co Ltd [ S ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G & H (Gee & Holmes [S] ) 20th c./2nd half
G & J over W.H into a shield (G & J W Hawksley Ltd [S]) 20th c./1st half
G&MC (George & Michael Crichton [ E ]) 19th c./2nd half
G&S into two conjoined circles (Grant & Son [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
G&S.Co over Ld into a trefoil (Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company Ltd [ L ][ S ]) end 19th c./20th c./1st half
G&S Co over Ltd into a trefoil (Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company Ltd [ B ][ C ][ D ][ G ][ L ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
G&W without contour (not identified [ L ]) 1979
GA over & Co (George Ashworth [ S] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
GA into a quatrefoil (George Angell [ L ] ) entered 1850
G A into two conjoined circles (Chawner & Co -George William Adams- [ L ]) mid 19th c.
G A into two conjoined circles (George Aldwinckle [ L ]) entered 1889
G. BROWN (G Brown [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
G.B (George Bell [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
G.B (George Boots [ABERDEEN] ) 19th c./1st half
G.B into a chamfered rectangle (George Burrows II [ L ] ) entered 1821
G.B into a chamfered rectangle (George Bedingham [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
G B in script (Gustavus Byrne [ D ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
G B in script into an oval (George Boothby [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
G B into a chamfered rectangle (George Burrows I [ L ] ) entered 1769
G B into a rectangle (George Brasier [ L ] ) entered 1788
GB into a rectangle (George Bower [ L ] ) entred 1813
GB into a chamfered rectangle (George Bedingham [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
G B into two outlines (George Boot [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G B & Co into four circles (G Bryan & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G B & Co (George Butler & Co [ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
G B & Co over Ld (Gresham, Barber & Co Ltd [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
G B over & S into a shield (not identified) Sheffield 1933
G B over & over SONS into an oval (George Betjenmann & Sons [ L ]) entered 1900
GBD into an oval (Ganneval, Bondier & Donninger [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
G B over JB into a quatrefoil (George & James Boyton [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
G.B.Ld into a double pointed oval (George Butler & Co [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half



G.C in script (George Campar [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
G.C & Co (G Cross & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
GC (George Cowles [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
GC (George Cunningham [ E ]) mid 19th c.
GC (George Christie [ E ] ) end 19th c.
GC over IC (George & John Cowie [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
G C W into three squares (G C Whiles [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
GD into an oval (George Day [ L ] ) entered 1809
GD into a a rectangle (George Day [ L ] ) entered 1814
G.D.R into a chamfered rectangle (George D Rattray [ E ][ G ]) 1915
G.E (George Elder [ G ] ) mid 19th c.
GE & Co (George Eadon & Co [ S] )
GE & S (George Edward & Son [ G ]) 19th c./2nd half
GE over AE into a quaterfoil (George Edward & Sons [ G ] ) 20th c./1st half
GED (Dougal Ged [ E ] ) 18th c./1st half
G.E.G (George Edward Gee [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G.E.H (George Ernest Hawkins [ B ][ C ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G.E.W into a chamfered rectangle (G E Walton & Co Ltd -George Edwin Walton- [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
G.E.W Ld into a chamfered rectangle (G E Walton & Co Ltd -George Edwin Walton- [ B ]) end 19th c.
GF (George Fenwick [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
GF (George Fox [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
G F into two conjoined circles (George Ferris [ EX ] ) 19th c./1st half
GF in script into a shield (not identified [ MALTA ] ) 1834
G.F.B (George Frank Bickerton - possibly- [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
G.F.P (George Frederick Pinnell [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
G.F.W &S into a sort of oblong shield (G F Westwood & Sons [ B ] ) entered 1912
GG (George Gray - overstruck-[ L ]) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
GG into an oval (George Guest [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GG (George Gray [ L ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
GG into an oval (George Gilliam [ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
GG into two conjoined circles (Gustave Guilaudet [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GG into two circles (George Gillett [ L ] ) end 19th c.
GG over CG (George Hay Gowland & Clement Gowland [ N ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GG over RG without contour (George & Richard Garnett [ L ] ) entered 1814
G.G.B (Geoffrey G Bellamy [ L ] ) 20th c./2nd half
GH into a rectangle (George Hunter I [L] ) entered 1755
GH (Harrison Brothers & Howson -George Howson- [ S] ) end 19th c./20th c.
GH (George Hindmarsh [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
GH (George Hape (possibly) [ S] ) 20th c./1st half
GH (George Heath [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
G.H into two conjoined circles (George Hunter II [L] ) entered 1817
G.H into an oblong chamfered rectangle (Harrison Brothers & Howson -George Howson- [S] ) end 19th c./20th c.
G.H into a rectangle (not identified [L] ) London 1924
G.H.H (George Henry Hibberd [ S ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G.H.I (G H Inshaw [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G.H.J into a rectangle (George Henry James & Co [ L ]) entered 1908
GHJ & Co into an oval (G H James & Co [ L ] ) entered 1911
G H W into square, circle and octagon (George Harry Whitaker [ S ]) entered 1883
G H over WC into a square (George Heming and William Chawner I [ L ]) entered 1781
G.I (George Innes [G]) 19th c./1st half
G.I (George Ivory [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
G.I (George Ibberson [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
G.I&Co (George Ibberson & Co [ B ][ S ]) 20th c./1st half
G.I into a hearth with two stars (Edward Gibson [ B ] ) beginning 18th c.
GI in script (George Greenhill Jones [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
G.J (George Jamieson [E][L] ) mid 19th c.
GJ over DF into a shield (George Maudsley Jackson & David Landsborough Fullerton -Josiah Williams & Co [ B ][ L ][ S ]) end 19th c./early 20th c.
G.J Ld (Georg Jensen Ltd [L] ) mid 20th c.
G.J.O into a rectangle (G.J. Oliphant [L]) entered 1856
GK into a rectangle (George Knight [L]) entered 1818
GK into two conjoined circles (George King [L]) entered 1819
G.K into a rectangle (George Kenning [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
GK & S into a rectangle (George Kenning & Son [ L ]) beginning 20th c.
G.L (G Loveridge & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G.L (George Lowe II [ C ] ) 19th c./1st half
GL conjoined (George Lambert [ L ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G L (Bristol Goldsmiths Alliance -George Langford- [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
G L (George Samuel Lewis [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
GL (Gerhardus Lotter [CAPE] ) 1810 c.
GL&Co (G Loveridge & Co [ B ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G L C into a clover (G L Connell Ltd [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G L over JW (George Lewis & John Wright [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
G.L without contour (G Loveridge [ B ] ) beginning 20th c.
G.Ltd (Gieves Ltd (of 21 Old Bond Street, London) Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G Ltd into two squares (Gladwin Ltd [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
GM (Gilbert Marks [ L ] )
G M (George Murray [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
GM in script (George Methuen [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
GM in script (George Morris [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
GM&S (not identified [ S ] ) 1933
G.M.Co into an indented rectangle (Gorham Manufacturing Co [ B ] [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
G.M.Co (G. Mills & Co [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
G MH (George McHattie [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
G.M.Ltd into an oval (George Muir Ltd [ G ] ) 20th c./1st half
GMJ (Josiah Williams & Co -George Maudsley Jackson- [ L ] ) end 19th c.
GN into an upturned heart (Gawen Nash [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
GN into a rectangle (George Nangle -possibly- [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
G N into a rectangle (George Nangle -possibly- [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
G N into an oval (George Nangle [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
G N (G Norman [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
G.N over R.H into a shield (George Nathan & Ridley Hayes [ B ][ C ][ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
GO into an oval (William Gould [L] ) entered 1734
G of H (George Henry Hart - 'Guild of Handicraft' [ L ] ) 20th c.
G of H Ltd (Guild of Handicraft Limited [ L ]) beginning 20th c.
GP (George Paton [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
GP (George Piercy [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
G P into an indented chamfered rectangle (Septimus Louis Platnauer trading as Gertrude Platnauer [ C ] ) entered 1938
G P into two circles (George Perkins [ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
GP&S into four conjoined octagons (G. Payne & Son [ B ] ) 20th c.
GPB without frame (not identified [ B ] ) 1910



G.R (G Randle [ B ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G R into an oval (George Reid [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
G R (George John Richards [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
G.R into a rectangle (George John Richards [ L ] ) entered 1844
G.R.C (G R Collis & Co [ B ]) mid 19th c.
GRC (George Richmond Collis [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
GRE (George Richards Elkington [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GR over EB into a quatrefoil (George John Richards & Edward Charles Brown [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GRISH CHUNDER DUTT into a lozenge (Grish, Chunder & Dutt [ Bhowanipore CALCUTTA - India ] ) c. 1890-1900
G over R I (Richard & Joseph Gosling -possibly- [ L ] ) c. 1760
GS in script into a rectangle (George Smith III [ L ] ) entered 1774
GS (George Smith V [ L ] ) end 18th c.
GS and English pseudo hallmarks (George Savage [ CANADA ] ) c.1830-1850
GS (George Sangster [ E ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GS (George Stockwell for Stockwell & Co Ltd [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
Gs (Garrards Ltd [ L ] ) mid 20th c.
GSG over & Co inside a shield (Charles S. Green & Company [ B ] ) 20th c./2nd half
GST (G S Twist [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
GS over TH (George Smith V & Thomas Hayter [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
GS over WF into a square (George Smith III & William Fearn [ L ] ) entered 1786
G.T (G Thomson [G] ) 19th c./1st half
G.T (George Turner [ EX ] ) 19th c./1st half
GT over Ld into a trefoil (George Tarratt Ltd [L] ) mid 20th c.
G.T over T.B into a square (George Turner & Thomas William Biddell [L] ) entered 1820
GU into a shield (George Unite [B][S]) 19th c./2nd half
GU into a chamfered rectangle (George Unite [B][C]) mid 19th c./mid 20th c.
G.U (George Unite [B][C][L][S]) mid 19th c./mid 20th c.
G.U.S & L (G Unite & Sons & Lyde Ltd [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
GV (George Vernon [L] ) entered 1728
G.V&Co into a chamfered oblong rectangle (Gourdel Vales & Co [B][C][L]) 20th c./1st half
GvBH into an oblong rectangle (Geraldine von Bethmann-Hollweg [ L ]) end 20th c.
GW gothic under a crown (George Wickes [ L ]) 18th c./1st half
GW into a rectangle (George Wintle [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
GW into an oval (George Wintle [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
GW (Gervase Wheeler [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
GW in script (George Whiting [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
GW in script (George Webb [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
GW (G Walker [ C ]) end 19th c.
GW into an oval (George West [ D ]) end 19th c.
GW into a rectangle (George Wish [ L ][ S ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
G.W (George White [ G ]) 19th c./1st half
G.W into a rectangle under a crown (George Wickes [ L ]) 18th c./1st half
G.W into a lozenge (Graham Watling [ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
G.W.H&Co (G W Harvey & Co [ B ]) end 19th c/beginning 20th c.
GWL&Co (G W Lewis & Co [ B ]) 20th c./1st half
GY under a dot into a pentagon (George Young [L] ) entered 1746
Gy & Co into three conjoined circles (Grey & Co [L] ) entered 1893
Gy&Co into a chamfered oblong rectangle (Grey & Co [ B ][ C ][L ]) 20th c./1st half
The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of the origin and the age of each silver piece manufactured or traded in the UK. The marks are:

Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the Assay Office that has verified the piece
London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifiying the silver quality
lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718
Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office
London date letter 'a'
A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty
Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890
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