A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
CZECHIA/CZECH REPUBLIC & SLOVAKIA

A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.

The territories of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia were under Habsburg Monarchy and silver hallmarking system was that of Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After WWI and dissolution of the Austrian Empire and the unification as Czechoslovakia new hallmarks were adopted in 1921.
The Czech areas were occupied by Germany in 1939, with consequent secession of Slovakia and creation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under German control. After WWII the region came under Soviet influence until 1989 revolution.
Following the end of Communist rule the state of Czechoslovakia was separated in 1993 into the countries of Czech Republic (from 2016 the preferred name is Czechia) and Slovakia.
The two countries cooperate closely and retain the Czechoslovakian hallmarks of 1962 using only different positions of the code letters to identify the assay offices of each country.
SILVER HALLMARKS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 1807 - 1866
Austria: Prague hallmark before 1867 Austria: Brno hallmark before 1867

TOWN IDENTIFICATION LETTER OF CZECHOSLOVAKIAN TOWNS FROM 1807:
B=Prague (now Czechia) - F=Brno (now Czechia)

SILVER HALLMARKS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 1866-1918
hallmark from 1867 hallmark from 1867 hallmark from 1867 hallmark from 1867 hallmark from 1867
'Diana Head' Prague  hallmark

IDENTIFICATION LETTER OF CZECHOSLOVAKIAN TOWNS FROM 1867 ("Diana" and "Import marks" 1872-1901 and 1902-1921).
1867-1872 code in a separate punch. 1872-1922 code within "Diana head" mark or "small pieces" mark:

A8=Olomouc/Olmutz (now Czechia 1872-1921) - C=Praha/Prag/Prague (now Czechia 1867-1922) - C4=Plzen/Pilsen (now Czechia) - D=Brno/Brunn (now Czechia 1867-1872) - A6=Brno/Brunn (now Czechia 1872-1921) - P4=Bratislava/Pozsony/Pressburg (now Slovakia 1867-1872) - R=Kosice/Kassa/Kaschau (now Slovakia 1867-1872)

CZECHOSLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1921 - 1929
LARGE WORKS
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: large works 1921 - 1929 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: large works 1921 - 1929 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: large works 1921 - 1929 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: large works 1921 - 1929
SMALL WORKS
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: small works 1921 - 1929
OTHER MARKS
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: transitional for ancient Austrian works 1921 - 1929 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: import 1921 - 1929 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: transitional for ancient Austrian works 1921 - 1929

CZECHOSLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1929 - 1941
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: 1929 - 1941 Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: import and export
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: 1929 - 1941

PROTECTORATE OF BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1942 - 1945
CZECHOSLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1945 - 1949
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia silver hallmarks: 1942 - 1945 and Czechoslovakia 1945-1949 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Import/Export silver hallmarks: 1942 - 1945
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia silver hallmarks: 1942 - 1945 and Czechoslovakia 1945-1949 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia silver hallmarks: 1942 - 1945 and Czechoslovakia 1945-1949 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia silver hallmarks: 1942 - 1945 and Czechoslovakia 1945-1949

SLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1941 - 1949
CZECHOSLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1949 - 1962
Slovakia silver hallmarks: 1941 - 1949 and Czechoslovakia 1949 - 1962
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: small items 1957 - 1962
Slovakia silver hallmarks: 1941 - 1949 and Czechoslovakia 1949 - 1962 Slovakia silver hallmarks: 1941 - 1949 and Czechoslovakia 1949 - 1962

ASSAY OFFICE LETTER CODE
:
P=Praha B=Brno J=Joblonec O=Ostrava B=Bratislava K=Kosice

CZECHOSLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1962 - 1993
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: 1962 - 1993
Czechoslovakia silver hallmarks: 1962 - 1993

ASSAY OFFICE LETTER CODE
:
P=Praha B=Brno J=Joblonec O=Ostrava B=Bratislava

CZECHIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1993 - present
SLOVAKIA SILVER HALLMARKS 1993 - present
Czechia and Slovakia silver hallmarks: 1993 - present

CZECHIA ASSAY OFFICE LETTER CODE
:
P=Praha, J=Jablonec nad Nisou, B=Brno, O-Ostrava, T=Turnov, R=Tabor, Z=Plzen, L=Olomouc, H=Hradec Kralove, K=Cerveny Kostelec
The miniature code letter of Czechia is placed near the fineness number and differentiates from the corresponding Slovakia code being orientated upright to the vertical axis of the hallmark

SLOVAKIA ASSAY OFFICE LETTER CODE
:
B=Bratislava K=Kosice T=Trencin L=Levice
The miniature code letter of Slovakia is placed near the fineness number and differentiates from the corresponding Czechia code being orientated parallel with the vertical axis of the hallmark

CZECHIA AND SLOVAKIA OTHER PRECIOUS METALS HALLMARKS 1993 - present
Czechia and Slovakia gold hallmarks: 1993 - present
Czechia and Slovakia platinum hallmarks: 1993 - present

HALLMARKING CONVENTION

Czech Republic from 1994 and Slovakia from 2007 are country members of the Convention on the Control and Marking of Articles of Precious Metals, an international treaty between States on the cross border trade in precious metal articles. It was signed in Vienna in November 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
The Convention's Common Control Mark (CCM) has the same legal status as a national Assay Office mark. The CCM is applied by national Assay Offices to articles of platinum, gold, palladium and silver after the fineness of the alloy has been checked in accordance with agreed testing methods.
Articles bearing the CCM - together with the national Assay Office Mark, the responsibility mark (manufacturer or sponsor) and the fineness mark indicating its purity - do not have to be re-controlled or re-marked in the states members of the Convention.
Czech Republic Common Control Mark (CCM)


Slovakia Common Control Mark (CCM)



worldwide hallmarks overview WORLD HALLMARKS OVERVIEW    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z   
SILVER FINENESS NUMBERS

OTHER EUROPEAN HALLMARKS (under construction)      and HALLMARKING CONVENTION

AUSTRIA     BELGIUM     CYPRUS     CZECHIA/CZECH REPUBLIC     DENMARK     ESTONIA    FINLAND     FRANCE     GERMANY     GREECE     HUNGARY     IRELAND     ITALY     LATVIA     LITHUANIA     LUXEMBOURG     MALTA     THE NETHERLANDS     NORWAY     POLAND     PORTUGAL     ROMANIA     SLOVAKIA     SLOVENIA     SPAIN     SWEDEN     SWITZERLAND     UNITED KINGDOM

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