ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
IA - IG
AA/AE    AF/AZ    BA/BZ    CA/CH    CI/CZ    DA/DZ    EA/EZ    FA/FZ    GA/GZ    HA/HG    HH/HZ    IA/IG    IH/IZ    JA/JC    JD/JI    JJ/JP    JQ/JS    JT/JZ    KA/LZ    MA/MZ    NA/PA    PB/PZ    QA/RJ    RK/RZ    SA/SG    SH/SZ    TA/TH    TI/TZ    UA/WB    WC/WF    WG/WL    WM/WS    WT/ZZ   

MARKS' IMAGES
A&/AC    AD/AK    AL/AZ    B&/BB    BC/BO    BP/BZ    C&/CA    CB/CC    CD/CF    CG/CL    CM/CS    CT/CZ    D&/DB    DC/DL    DM/DZ    E&/EA    EB/ED    EE/EH    EI/EO    EP/EZ    F&/FD    FE/FJ    FK/FZ    G&/GB    GC/GG    GH/GL    GM/GR    GS/GZ    H&/H&    HA/HB    HC/HE    HF/HL    HM/HU    HV/HZ    I&/IG    IH/IL    IM/IZ    J&/JA    JB/JC    JD/JG    JH/JK    JL/JQ    JR/JR    JS/JS    JT/JZ    K&/KZ    L&/LB    LC/LZ    M&/MB    MC/MI    MJ/MZ    N&/NZ    O&/OZ    P&/PK    PL/PZ    QA/QZ    R&/RB    RC/RG    RH/RK    RL/RQ    RR/RZ    S&/SB    SC/SI    SJ/SR    SS/SZ    T&/TC    TD/TG    TH/TN    TO/TS    TT/TZ    U&/UZ    V&/VZ    W&/WA    WB/WB    WC/WC    WD/WE    WF/WG    WH/WL    WM/WM    WN/WR    WS/WS    WT/XZ    Y&/YZ    Z&/ZZ   

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X/Y    Z   

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION


I & IW over & Co (Waterhouse, Hodgson & Co [ S] ) 19th c./1st half
IAS over McKAY into a circle (IAS McKay [E] ) 19th c./1st half
I&T.S. (John & Thomas Settle [ S ]) entered 1815
IB (John Bettridge [ B ]) 19th c./1st half
IB into a rectangle (James Beattie 1790 or John Boyer 1794 or Joseph Barnard 1798 or John Blake 1803 or John Bunn 1806 or John Blades 1812 or John Brent 1820 or John Blades 1827 [ L ] ) end 18th c/beginning 19th c.
IB (John Bolland [ D ] ) 18th c./2nd half
IB (James Brady [ D ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
I B into an oval (John Bourne [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.B into a rectangle (J. Berenger [ L ]) entered 1798
I.B into a rectangle (James Barratt [ L ]) entered 1801
I.B into a rectangle (John Brough 1813 - John Booth 1813 - Joseph Biggs 1816 - John Baddeley 1818 - John Brydie 1823 - John Bridge 1823 [ L ] )
I.B (John Buckton [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.B over a star (John Bache [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
I.B under a crown (John Bridge [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.B over EB (James & Elizabeth Bland [ L ] ) end 18th c.
I BELL into a rectangle (Joseph Bell II [ L ]) unregistered mark



IC under two stars (Isaac Callard [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
IC under a two handled cup (James Crawford [ N ] ) 18th c./2nd half
IC into an oval (Joseph Cullen [ D ] ) 18th c./2nd half
IC (Joseph Craddock [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
IC between two ladders and two shells (Johannes Combrink [CAPE] ) 1820 c.
IC into an oval (Joseph Craddock [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
I:C under a rosette into a trefoil (John Cafe [ L ] ) entered 1742
I:C in script into a trefoil (Isaac Cookson [ N ] ) 18th c./1st half
I.C (John Craig [ D ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.C (John Carter [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.C (John Daly [ D ] ) end 18th c.
I.C into rectangle (John Cramer [ L ] ) entered 1797
ICF (John Cope Folkard [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
ICA (Iona Celtic Art [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
I.C over T.H into an indented square (John Crouch I & Thomas Hannam [ L ] ) entered c. 1771
IC over WR into a quatrefoil (Joseph Craddock & William K. Reid [ L ] ) entered 1812
ID in script (Jabez Daniel [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
ID (John Deacon [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
ID into an oval (James Dempster [ E ] ) end 18th c.
ID (John Death [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
ID (John Deas [N] ) 19th c./1st half
I.D (James Darquits [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I blossom D (John Delmester or Dempster [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
I.D over A.D (John & Archibald Douglas [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half

IE (I. Ellis & Sons [ S] )
IE (James England [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.E (John Eyre & Co [S ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.E (John Egan [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
I.E into a rectangle (John Edwards III [L] ) entered 1788
IE over AH (James Ede & Alexander Hewat [L] ) 19th c./1st half
I over EA over & (Edward Aldridge & John Stampe[ L] ) mid 18th c.
IE over EE (John & Edward Edwards [L] ) 19th c./1st half
IE over &S into a shield (Isaac Ellis & Sons [S] ) entered 1897
IET (John Edward Terrey & Co [ L ]) 19th c./1st half



BRITISH TOWN MARKS AND DATE LETTERS

|DUTY MARKS|    |LEOPARD'S HEAD|    |LONDON MARKS|    |WOMEN SILVERSMITHS|    |PSEUDO HALLMARKS|    |IMPORT MARKS|    |CONTEMPORARY MARKS|    |JOURNEYMAN MARKS|    |HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS|    |OLD ADVERTISEMENTS|    |FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES|    |ARTICLES ON ENGLISH SILVER|   


The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838




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