HALLMARKS OF ENGLISH SILVER DIRECTORY
MAKER'S MARK IDENTIFICATION

WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS

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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF MARKS: RK-RZ
ALPHABETICAL LISTING
OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
| DUTY MARKS | LEOPARD'S HEAD | LONDON MARKS | WOMEN SILVERSMITHS | PSEUDO HALLMARKS | IMPORT MARKS |
| CONTEMPORARY MARKS | HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS | OLD ADVERTISEMENTS | FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES |
  [B] = BIRMINGHAM    [C] = CHESTER  [D] = DUBLIN  [E] = EDINBURGH  [EX] = EXETER  [G] = GLASGOW   
[L] = LONDON  [N] = NEWSCASTLE   [S] = SHEFFIELD   [Y] = YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION
R.K (Richard Kersill [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
RK into a rectangle (Robert Keay I or Robert Kerr -possibly- [E]) 19th c./1st half
RK into two conjoined circles (Rubin Koshr [L]) entered 1900
RL into two conjoined circles (R. Lindsay [ S ]) 20th c./1st half
RL & Co into two circles (R.Landstone & Co [ L ]) 20th c./1st half
RLC (Robert Keay II [ E ] ) 19th c./2nd half - 20th c./first half
RM into a rectangle (Richard Morton [ S] ) entered 1773
RM into an oval (Richard Morton [ S ] ) entered 1780
R.M (Richard Mills [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.M (Richard Morrison [ L ] ) end 18th c.
R.M into a rectangle (Robert Makepeace I [N] ) 18th c./1st half
RM over & Co (Richard Morton & Co [ S ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.M.Co (Rodenic Manufacturing Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.McD & Co (not identified [ S] ) 1933
RM over EH into a lozenge (Richard Martin & Ebenezer Hall -Martin, Hall & Co- [ B][ C] [ L ][ S] ) 19th c./2nd half- 20th c./1st half
RM over EH into a quatrefoil (Richard Martin & Ebenezer Hall -Martin, Hall & Co- [ B][ C] [ L ][ S] ) 19th c./2nd half
RMM & S into an oblong chamfered rectangle (R M Marples & Son [ L ]) entered 1902
RM over RH (Robert Makepeace & Richard Carter [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.M.W (Richard M Whitehouse [ L ]) 20th c./2nd half
Rn & Cr into an oval (Omar Ramsden & Alwyn Carr [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.N.H.&Co (R N Hollings & Co [ B ] ) 20th c./1st half
RNS into a chamfered rectangle (not identified [ L ] ) 1984
RO under a deer into a notched rectangle (Nathaniel Roe [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
RO (R Olver [ EX ] ) 19th c./1st half
ROOKE (Henry Rooke [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
RP (Richard Pargeter [ L ] ) 18th c./first half
RP in script (Robert Perth [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
RP into a rectangle (not identified [ S ] ) Sheffield 1983

R.P into a rectangle (Robert Pinkney [ N ] ) end 18th c.
R.P (Richard Pierce / Pearce [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.P into a shield (Robert Pringle & Sons [ B ][ C ][ L ][ S ]) end 19thc./ 20th c./1st half
R fleur de lys P (Robert Peaston [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.P into a rectangle (Richard Poulden [ L ] ) entered 1818
RP into an oval (not identified [ S ] ) 1979
RP into two lozenges (not identified [ L ] ) 1978
RP over & over CCo into a quatrefoil (not identified [ S ] ) 1943
RP over GB into a square (Richard Pierce & George Burrows II [ L ] ) entered 1826
R.P over G.B into a square (Richard Pierce & George Burrows II [ L ] ) entered 1826
RP over RS (Robert Pinkney & Robert Scott II [ N ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RR into an indented corners rectangle (Richard Richardson [ S ]) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
RR (Robert Rew [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RR into an oval (Richard Redrick [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RR (Robert Rutland [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RR into two circles (Richard Rugg [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.R into a rectangle (Richard Rugg [ L ] ) entered 1754
R.R over A.R over IMH under a crown (Robert Roskell, Alan Roskell & John Mortimer Hunt [ L ] ) entered 1882
R over RW (Robert Welch [ B ] )
RS (Robert Salmon [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RS under a crown (Richard Scarlett [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
RS in script (Richard Sibley I [ L ] ) entered 1812
RS in script (Richard Sibley II [ L ] ) entered 1839
RS into a rectangle (Robert Sharp [L] ) entered 1788
RS in script under a crown (R & S Garrard & Co -Robert Garrard II- [ L ] ) 19th c.
RS (Robert Smeaton [ E ] ) 19th c./1st half
RS into a tipped oval shape (Robert W. Smith [D] ) 19th c./1st half
RS into an oval (Robert Stebbings [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half - beginning 20th c.
RS into two circles (Robert Stocker [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half - beginning 20th c.
RS and pseudo English hallmarks (Rice Sharpley [CANADA] ) c. 1830-1880
RS into two conjoined circles (Robert Stewart [B][L][G]) 20th c./1st half
RS into a shield (Robert Stewart [B][L][G][S] ) 20th c./1st half
RS into an oval (Robert Stebbings [L]) 20th c./1st half
R.S (Robert Sallam [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.S in script (Richard Sawyer [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.S into an oval (Richard Slack [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.S (Richard Sawyer [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.S into a shield (R Smith [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
R.S (Robert Scott [ G ] ) mid 19th c.
R.S into two circles (Robert Stewart [ B ][ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
R.S into an oval (Robert Stebbings [L]) 20th c./1st half
R.S into a chamfered rectangle (Spencer & Co - possibly- [B]) 20th c./1st half
R.S.P.Co (Raeno Silver Plate Co Ltd [ B ] ) entered 1913
RS over WS into a quaterfoil (R & W Sorley [ G ][ L ] ) end 19th c./beginning 20th c.
RT (R Thornton [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
RT (Richard Turner [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RT (Robert Thornton [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
RT St J (Richard Thompson [CANADA] ) 1842-1844

RT over JS (Richard Turner & John Shea [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
R over W (Robert Welch [ B ][ L ] )
RW (Robert Welch [ B ] ) 20th c./2nd half
RW (Richard Whitford [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
RW (Robert Wilson [ E ] ) end 19th c.
RW into two conjoined circles (Robert Wallis [ L ] entered 1845
RW into a chamfered rectangle (Robert Walliss [ L ] ) entered 1836
R.W (Richard Williams [ D ] ) 18th c./2nd half
R.W (Robert Williams [ D ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
R.W (Robert Williams [ EX ] ) 19th c./1st half
RW over B in script into three circles (Harrods Ltd -Richard Woodman Burbridge- [ B ][ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./1st half
RWE (Richard William Elliott [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
RWJ into a shield (Robert William Jay [ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
RW over JW over JW (Robert, James & Josiah Williams [ EX ] ) mid 19th c
R over WP over P into a quaterfoil (Willian & Robert Peaston [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
RWS into a rectangle (Robert Wadman Stilby [L] ) entered 1912
RZ into a trefoil (Richard Zouch [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
The hallmarking of British silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of the origin and the age of each silver piece manufactured or traded in the UK. The marks are:

Town mark, corresponding to the mark of the Assay Office that has verified the piece
London town mark Sheffield town mark Birmingham town mark Newcastle town mark Dublin town mark Edinburgh town mark Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifiying the silver quality
lion passant: 1598-1820 lion passant: after 1820 Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718
Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office
London date letter 'a'
A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty
Sovereign head: duty mark from 1784 to 1890
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