ENGLISH SILVER HALLMARKS DIRECTORY
SILVER MAKERS MARKS IDENTIFICATION
WITH THE ADDITION OF SCOTTISH, IRISH, CHANNEL ISLANDS AND COLONIES SILVERMITHS



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BRITISH SILVERSMITHS - ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVER MAKERS MARKS
THE DIRECTORY OF MAKER'S MARKS
TI - TZ
AA/AE    AF/AZ    BA/BZ    CA/CH    CI/CZ    DA/DZ    EA/EZ    FA/FZ    GA/GZ    HA/HG    HH/HZ    IA/IG    IH/IZ    JA/JC    JD/JI    JJ/JP    JQ/JS    JT/JZ    KA/LZ    MA/MZ    NA/PA    PB/PZ    QA/RJ    RK/RZ    SA/SG    SH/SZ    TA/TH    TI/TZ    UA/WB    WC/WF    WG/WL    WM/WS    WT/ZZ   

MARKS' IMAGES
A&/AC    AD/AK    AL/AZ    B&/BB    BC/BO    BP/BZ    C&/CA    CB/CC    CD/CF    CG/CL    CM/CS    CT/CZ    D&/DB    DC/DL    DM/DZ    E&/EA    EB/ED    EE/EH    EI/EO    EP/EZ    F&/FD    FE/FJ    FK/FZ    G&/GB    GC/GG    GH/GL    GM/GR    GS/GZ    H&/H&    HA/HB    HC/HE    HF/HL    HM/HU    HV/HZ    I&/IG    IH/IL    IM/IZ    J&/JA    JB/JC    JD/JG    JH/JK    JL/JQ    JR/JR    JS/JS    JT/JZ    K&/KZ    L&/LB    LC/LZ    M&/MB    MC/MI    MJ/MZ    N&/NZ    O&/OZ    P&/PK    PL/PZ    QA/QZ    R&/RB    RC/RG    RH/RK    RL/RQ    RR/RZ    S&/SB    SC/SI    SJ/SR    SS/SZ    T&/TC    TD/TG    TH/TN    TO/TS    TT/TZ    U&/UZ    V&/VZ    W&/WA    WB/WB    WC/WC    WD/WE    WF/WG    WH/WL    WM/WM    WN/WR    WS/WS    WT/XZ    Y&/YZ    Z&/ZZ   

ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SILVERSMITHS' NAMES
A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X/Y    Z   

[B]=BIRMINGHAM   [C]=CHESTER   [D]=DUBLIN   [E]=EDINBURGH   [EX]=EXETER   [G]=GLASGOW    [L]=LONDON   [N]=NEWSCASTLE   [S]=SHEFFIELD   [Y]=YORK
(lower-case letter denote smaller ones but they may be capital letters)
CLICK ON THE YELLOW NAME FOR MAKER'S MARK IMAGE and ON THE GREEN NAME FOR INFORMATION


T over I.D over D (Thomas & Jabez Daniel [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
TI over NC (Creswick & Co -Thomas, James & Nathaniel Creswick- [ S] ) 19th c./1st half
TJ (Thomas Joyce [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
TJ (Thomas Johnson I [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
T.J (Thomas Jenkinson [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.J (Thomas Johnston [ E ] ) beginning 20th c.
T j&(left) wf(right)into a shield (Thomas of New Bond Street [ L ] ) 20th c./1st half
TJS (T J Skelton [ B ][ C ] ) 20th c./1st half
TKB into two ovals (Brewis & Co -Thomas Kanzow Bowley- [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
TK& S (Toye Kenning and Spencer [ B ] ) 20th c./2nd half
TL (Thomas Lawrence [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TL into a rectangle (Levesley Brothers -Thomas Levesley- [ S ] ) entered 1893
T.L into a rectangle (Levesley Brothers -Thomas Levesley- [ S ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
TL over & over EM into a quatrefoil (Thomas Latham & Ernest Morton [ B ][ C ] [ L ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
TL over DL (Thomas & Daniel Leader [ S ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
T. LAW (Thomas Law [ S] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TM (T W Matthews [ L ] ) end 18th c./beginning 19th c.
TM (Thomas Morley [ L ] ) beginning 19th c.
TM (Thomas Meade [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
TM into a rectangle (Thomas Merry II [ L ]) entered 1731
TM under an asterisk into a rectangle (Thomas Mann [ L ]) entered 1736
TM into a cut corners rectangle (Thomas Marples [ B ][ S ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
T.M into a shield, two pellet over and below (Thomas Mason [L] ) entered 1733
T.M (Thomas Mynd [ B ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
T.M (Thomas Millington [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.M (Thomas Marsh & Co [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T.M into a cut corners rectangle (Thomas Marples [ B ][ S ] ) end 19th c.
T.M into a sort of shield (not identified [ S ] ) 1861



TM ov. IB ov. TM (Thomas Mitchell & Co -Thomas Mitchell, James Burden & Thomas Merrifield- [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
TN (Thomas Newbold [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TN (Thomas Nowill [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
TN (Thomas Northcote [ L ]) 19th c./2nd half
TN in script (Thomas Nash I [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
TN over GB (Thomas Northcote & George Bourne [ L ] ) end 18th c.
TO (Thomas Oliphant or Ollivant [ L ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TP in script into an oval (Thomas Parr II [ L ] ) entered 1739
TP into an oval (Thomas Partis II [ N ] ) entered 1749
TP into a chamfered rectangle (Thomas Pepper II [ L ] ) entered 1809
TP (Thomas Parker [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TP (Thomas Powell [ L ] ) beginning 19th c.
TP into a shaped contour (not identified [ B ] ) 2000
T.P (Thomas Pitts [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
T.P into a rectangle (Thomas Pepper I [ L ] ) entered 1767
T.P into an oval (Thomas Pratt [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T.P over & S (Thomas Prime & Son [ B ][ C ] ) 19th c./2nd half
TP & S (Thomas Prime & Son [ B ] ) 19th c./2nd half
TP over AH (Thomas Pratt & Arthur Humphries [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
TP over EF (Thomas Purver & Edward Furniss [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
TP over ER into a quatrefoil (Thomas Phipps & Edward Robinson [ L ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TP over ER over JP (Thomas Phipps, Edward Robinson & James Phipps [ L ] )19th c./1st half
T.P.H without contour (The Lancashire Watch Co Ltd -Thomas Peter Hewitt- [ C ] ) entered c. 1892
TP over IP into a quatrefoil (Thomas & James Phipps II [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.P.R. & CO (T.P.R. & CO [BOMBAY (India)] ) c. 1890

T.R into a curved outline (Thomas Roberts [ L ] ) entered 1720
TR in script into two circles (Thomas Robins [ L ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TR into an oval (Timothy Renou [ L ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TR into two conjoined circles (Thomas Reeves [ C ] ) entered 1907
T.R&S (Thomas Ross & Sons [ G ] ) beginning 20th c.
T.R (Thomas Richards [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.R (Thomas Robinson [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.R in script (Thomas Rush [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
T.R (Thomas Rowe [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
T.R over & Co (Thomas Blagden & Co [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
T over R.G over C into a quatrefoil (Thomas Cooke II & Richard Gurney or Richard Gurney & Co [ S ] ) entered 1727
TS (Thomas Sansom [ S ] ) 19th c./1st half
TS into an oval (Thomas Streetin [ L ] ) 19th c./1st half
TS (Thomas Shaw [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TS (Thomas Smith [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TS (Thomas Simpson Jr [ B ] ) 19th c./1st half
TS (Thomas Sewell (I) [ N ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T.S (Thomas Shepherd [L]) 18th c./2nd half
T.S into an oval (Thomas H Stone [ EX ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T.S into two conjoined circles (Thomas Smily [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T S&(intertwined) S in script into a trefoil (Thomas Smith & Sons [ E ] ) beginning 20th c.
TS over TM into a square (Timothy Smith & Thomas Merryweather [L]) entered 1824
TS over WS over HH (Holland, Aldwinckle & Slater -Alfred Thomas Slater, Walter Brindley Slater & Henry Arthur Holland- [L]) entered 1895
TS & S (T Smith & Sons [ G ] ) 19th c./2nd half
TT under a crown (Thomas Tearle [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
TT (Thomas Taylor [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
T.T (Thomas Townsend [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
T.T over & Co into a square (Thomas Turner & Co [ S ] ) 20th c./1st half



TW in script (Thomas Whipham [ L ] ) mid 18th c.
TW in script (Thomas Wallis II [ L ])) 18th c./2nd half
TW (Thomas Watson [ N ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TW (Thomas Wallis I [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
TW (Thomas Williamson [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half
TW (Thomas Wheatley [ N ] ) 19th c./1st half
TW (Thomas Watson [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
TW (Thomas Whitaker -entered 1841- [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
TW (Thomas Wimbush -entered 1846- [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
TW (Thomas Wells -entered 1849- [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
TW (Thomas Whitehouse -entered 1850- [ L ] ) mid 19th c.
TW into a shield (T Wooley [ B ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
T.W into a rectangle under a star (Thomas Whipham [ L ] ) entered 1737
T.W into a rectangle (Thomas Wallis I [ L ] ) entered 1758
T.W (also into an oval) (Thomas Willmore [ B ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
T.W (Thomas Whitehouse [ L ] ) 19th c./2nd half
T.W (T Wooley [ B ] ) end 19th c./ beginning 20th c.
TW over & Co (Thomas Watson & Co [ S ] ) end 18th c./ beginning 19th c.
TW over & Co over Ltd (Travis, Wilson & Co Ltd [ S ] ) 20th c.
T.W under C over W (Thomas Whipham & Charles Wright [ L ] ) 18th c./2nd half
T.W over & Co over Ltd into a shield (Travis, Wilson & Co Ltd [ B ][ E ][ G ][ L ][ S ] ) 20th c./2nd half
TW& Co (Thomas Watson & Co [ S] ) 19th c./1st half
T.W&S into an oblong rectangle (not identified [ B ]) 1867
T over WC over C into a quatrefoil (Thomas & William Chawner -possibly- [ L ]) mid 18th c.
T.W.D. into three conjoined circles (Thomas William Dee [ L ]) entered 1862
T.W.D into a six sides polygon (Dobson & Sons -Thomas William Dobson- [ L ] ) entered 1886
TW over D over HH into a quatrefoil (Dobson & Sons -Thomas William Dobson & Henry Holmes Dobson- [ L ] ) entered 1877
TW over JH (Thomas Wallis (II) & Jonathan Hayne [ L ]) 19th c./1st half
T.W.L into a rectangle (Thomas William Lack [ C ][ L ]) 20th c./1st half
TW under W over w (Thomas Whipham & William Williams [ L ] ) 18th c./1st half
TWY+ (Edward Twycross [ D ] ) 19th c./1st half



BRITISH TOWN MARKS AND DATE LETTERS

|DUTY MARKS|    |LEOPARD'S HEAD|    |LONDON MARKS|    |WOMEN SILVERSMITHS|    |PSEUDO HALLMARKS|    |IMPORT MARKS|    |CONTEMPORARY MARKS|    |JOURNEYMAN MARKS|    |HERALDRY & FAMILY CRESTS|    |OLD ADVERTISEMENTS|    |FACTORIES & SHOPS: OLD IMAGES|    |ARTICLES ON ENGLISH SILVER|   


The hallmarking of British sterling silver is based on a combination of marks that makes possible the identification of origin and age of each piece.
Follow this link to learn HOW TO READ ENGLISH/BRITISH STERLING SILVER MARKS

This is the combination of marks used to assay silver:

Town mark, corresponding to the hallmark of the Assay Office which verified the piece


London town mark    Sheffield town mark    Birmingham town mark    Newcastle town mark    Dublin town mark    Edinburgh town mark    Glasgow town mark

Lion passant guardant or Britannia or lion's head erased, certifying the silver quality

lion passant: 1598-1820    lion passant: after 1820    Britannia and lion's head erased: from 1697 to 1718


Maker's mark, identifying the silversmith presenting the piece to the assay office (usually the initials of Christian name and surname of the silversmith)

examples of maker's mark


Date letter, in cycles of twenty letters of the alphabet of different shape identifies the year in which the piece was verified by the Assay Office

London date letter 'a' London date letter 'a'


A further mark was used in the period 1784 - 1890:
Sovereign head ('duty mark'), certifying the payment of the duty


Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1784 Sovereign head: duty mark George III, 1795 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1822 Sovereign head: duty mark George IV, 1825 Sovereign head: duty mark William IV, 1835 Sovereign head: duty mark Victoria, 1838




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