A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS
THE NETHERLANDS (1807 - 1953)
A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
The United Provinces of the Netherlands obtained independence from Spain in 1579. They were occupied by French in 1795 and were brought together as one kingdom in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon.
Since the late 14th century the guilds of goldsmiths and silversmiths were charged with the task of hallmarking precious metal wares.
In 1798 the French occupants abolished the guilds and a new hallmarking system was introduced during the short living Kingdom of Holland of Louis Bonaparte (1807-1810).
In 1810 the Kingdom of Holland was annexed to French Empire and French hallmarks were used until 1814.
In 1814 the new Kingdom of the Netherlands adopted a standard national system of hallmarks that were maintained until 1953.

KINGDOM OF HOLLAND HALLMARKS (1807-1810)

Kingdom of Holland hallmarks: 1807-1810 Kingdom of Holland hallmarks: 1807-1810
Kingdom of Holland hallmarks: date letters 1807-1810 Kingdom of Holland hallmarks: 1807-1810

ANNEXATION TO FRENCH EMPIRE (1811-1814)

Annexation to French Empire: hallmarks 1811-1814 Annexation to French Empire: hallmarks 1811-1814

KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (1814-1953)

Kingdom of the Netherlands: silver fineness .934 hallmark Kingdom of the Netherlands: silver fineness .833 hallmark Kingdom of the Netherlands: silver fineness .833 hallmark
Silver fineness marks large items: .934 and .833
Kingdom of the Netherlands: silver fineness small items .833 hallmark Kingdom of the Netherlands: silver fineness small items .833 hallmark
Silver fineness marks small items: .833
Kingdom of the Netherlands: Regional Assay Office mark: 1814-1905 Kingdom of the Netherlands: Regional Assay Office mark: from 1906 Kingdom of the Netherlands: Regional Assay Office mark: 1814-1905 Kingdom of the Netherlands: Regional Assay Office mark The Hague: 1814-1905 Kingdom of the Netherlands: Regional Assay Office mark Amsterdam: from 1906
Regional Assay Office mark
Identification letters: A - Amsterdam (closed 1988) B - Utrecht (closed 1986) C - The Hague ('s-Gravenhage) (closed 1988) D - Rotterdam (closed 1988) E - Groningen (closed 1927) F - Leeuwarden (closed 1984) G - Zwolle (closed (1878) H - Arnhem (closed 1970) I - Breda (closed 1875) J - Joure (opened 2002) K - Den Bosch ('s-Hertogenbosch) (closed 1986) L - Middelburg (closed 1889) M - Schoonhoven (closed 1987) N - Maastricht, (the letter M used 01-03-1842/11-01-1844, assay office closed in 1927) O - Roermond (closed 1868) P - Alkmaar (closed 1924) Q - Roosendaal (closed 1927) R - Gouda (opened 1988)
Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of national origin Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of national origin Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of national origin
Duty marks for unguaranteed silver objects of national origin
Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of foreign origin Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of foreign origin 1906-1953 Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty mark for unguaranteed silver objects of foreign origin 1814-1893
Duty marks for unguaranteed silver objects of foreign origin
Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark
Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark Kingdom of the Netherlands: duty restitution mark and keyhole number
Duty restitution mark upon export (1853-1953). It was struck partially into the standard mark or duty mark from unguaranteed domestic silver. The number "4" in the "keyhole" denotes the number of components used to make the piece. This mark was used for tax purposes, to verify that no extra silver was added to the item.
Kingdom of the Netherlands: date letters 1814-1953
Date letters table 1814-1953


THE NETHERLANDS PRECIOUS METALS HALLMARKS FROM 1953

THE NETHERLANDS SILVER MAKER'S MARKS FROM 1814

worldwide hallmarks overview WORLD HALLMARKS OVERVIEW    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z   
SILVER FINENESS NUMBERS

OTHER EUROPEAN HALLMARKS (under construction)

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