A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SILVER AND GOLD HALLMARKS
POLAND
A silver or gold object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more hallmarks indicating the purity of the metal and the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith
The word "HALLMARK" derives from the fact that, since the 16th century, precious metals were sent to the London Goldsmiths' Hall for testing to ensure that the correct standard of silver had been used. The Goldsmiths' Hall was the headquarters of the Goldsmiths' Company and the home of the Assay Office.
In some countries, the testing of precious metal objects and marking of purity is controlled by a national assay office.
Depending on the national legislation the use of hallmarks may be compulsory, voluntary or provided by a manufacturer's declaration.
The present Polish hallmarking system is organized on a compulsory base.
The independent existence of Polish territories ended in late 18th century after a series of invasions and partitions carried out by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy.
Austro-Hungarian hallmarks were used in Lwów, Krakow and other towns.
Austria-Hungary silver hallmark: 1800 town of Lwow Austria-Hungary silver hallmark: 1866 town of Krakow
A Russian Assay Office was established in Warsaw.
Russian silver hallmark: 1895 town of Warszawa Russian silver hallmark: after 1899 town of Warszawa, maker Jan Pogorzelski




After WWI Poland obtained independence and in 1920 was introduced the new national hallmarking system.

POLISH SILVER HALLMARKS: 1920-1931
Polish silver hallmarks: 1920-1931 Poland: mark for used items and .875 fineness 1920-1931 hallmark on a Russian marked object, town of Wroclaw Poland: mark for used items and .875 fineness 1920-1931, town of Krakow Poland: mark for .800 fineness 1920-1931, town of Warszawa


SMALL ITEMS (UNDER 10 GRAMS)
Polish silver hallmarks: small items 1920-1931


NEW ASSAY ON USED ITEMS (1920-1963)
Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1920-1963 Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1920-1963 Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1920-1963 Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1920-1963



POLISH SILVER HALLMARKS: 1931-1963
Polish silver hallmarks: 1931-1963 Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1920-1963 Poland: mark for small items .800 fineness 1931-1963 Warszawa Poland: mark for small items .800 fineness 1931-1963 Lodz



POLISH SILVER HALLMARKS: 1963-1986
Polish silver hallmarks: 1963-1986 Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1963-1986 Polish silver hallmarks:  Warszawa.800 fineness 1963-1986 Polish silver hallmarks: Krakow .800 fineness 1963-1986



POLISH SILVER HALLMARKS: 1986-present
Polish silver hallmarks: 986-present Polish silver hallmarks: new assay on used items 1986-present Polish silver hallmarks: Lodz .925 fineness  1986-present Polish silver hallmarks: Warszawa .925 fineness  1986-present Polish silver hallmarks: Gdansk .925 fineness  1986-present Polish silver hallmarks: Krakow .800 fineness  1986-present


TOWN CODES
A Bialystok    B Bydgoszcz    G Gdansk    H Chorzow    K Krakow    L Lodz    P Poznam    V Wroclaw    W Warszawa    Z Czestochova

PRECIOUS METALS HALLMARKS: 2012-present
GOLD
Polish gold hallmarks: 2012-present Polish gold hallmarks: 2012-present
PLATINUM
Polish platinum hallmarks: 2012-present
PALLADIUM
Polish palladiun hallmarks: 2012-present

worldwide hallmarks overview WORLD HALLMARKS OVERVIEW    A-B      C-F      G-L      M-R      S-Z   
SILVER FINENESS NUMBERS

OTHER EUROPEAN HALLMARKS (under construction)

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