A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE SILVER
AND OBJECTS OF VERTU
THE WHAT IS? SILVER DICTIONARY

SILVER FINENESS MARKS

The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities. Alloy metals are added to increase hardness and durability of coins and jewelry, alter colors, decrease the cost per weight, or avoid the cost of high-purity refinement.
Most countries have silver standards based on the parts per thousand of pure metal by mass in the alloy. Other systems express the silver standard in other ways as "zolotnick" (Russia) and "loth" (loth in Austria and German area, luoti in Finland, lődig in Norway). Various other standards were used in the past centuries in other European countries (e.g. Italy, France, Portugal, Spain).
The marks used to certify the level of silver purity are the corresponding number, a number and one or more letters, a symbol or a mix of symbol/number/letter.
In this page are reported only the most common standards actually adopted in silver manufacture, ignoring those that, even if authorized, are scarcely used.

12 (loth fineness = .750)
silver fineness 12 loth (Germany)
Austria (12 and symbol) - Germany (12)

13 (loth fineness = .812,5)
silver fineness 13 loth (Austria)
Austria (13 and symbol) - Finland (13, 13L into a rectangle or an oval) - Germany (13)

13 1/2 (loth fineness = .843,75)

Finland (13 1/2, 13 1/2L into a rectangle)

78 (zolotnik fineness = .812,5)
silver fineness 78 zolotnick (Finland)
Finland (78 into an oval or a rectangle)

84 (zolotnik fineness = .875)
silver fineness 84 zolotnick (Russia)
Estonia (84EW into an oval) - Finland (84 into a rectangle) - Iran (84 into a rectangle) - Poland (under Russian Empire) - Russia (84 and symbol)

88 (zolotnik fineness = .916)
silver fineness 88 zolotnick (Russia)
Russia (88 and symbol)

500 (millesimal fineness)

Bulgaria (crown and "A5")

600 (millesimal fineness)

Egypt (Arabic number)

750 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .750 (Romania)
Austria (Diana head with "4" - Bulgaria (crown and "A4") - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "4", ram's head) - Poland (woman's head facing right and "4") - Romania (two fishes and "III", crown figural, wheat's ear and sickle, 750 and tower) - Spain (9D and crown, comet)

800 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .800 (Belgium)
Argentina (800 into a lozenge, into a rectangle or without contour) - Austria (Diana head with "3" or bird's head with "4") - Belgium (A800, Janus head) - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "3" or "5", dog's head) - Denmark (800S) - Egypt (Arabic number) - Estonia (800 into oval, shaped oval, rectangle) - Finland (800 into a rectangle) - France (cock, Minerva head, ancient man and various figural marks with "2") Germany (800) - Hungary (Diana's head and "3", 800 and woman's head)) - Indonesia (800) - Italy (800 into an oval, woman's head with "3") - Lithuania (0,800, 800) - Japan (800 into a lozenge) - Malta (800 into a rectangle) - The Netherlands (Z800) - Poland (women's head facing left or right and "3") - Portugal (800 and bird's head) - Romania (two fishes and "II", crown figural, wheat's ear and sickle, 800 and tower) - Spain (800V1 or other letters as M1, A1, AR1 etc. identifying the assay office into a rectangle, 800B2 into a rectangle) - Sweden (S into a hexagon) - Switzerland (black grouse facing right, 0.800, 800)

813 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .813 (Finland)
Finland (813, 813H into a rectangle)

826 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .826 (Denmark)
Denmark (826, 826S)

830 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .830 (Norway)
Denmark (830, 830S) - Finland (830, 830H into a rectangle) - Lithuania (830) - Malta (after 1982) - Norway (830S with or without outline) - Sweden (830)

833 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .833 (The Netherlands)
The Netherlands (lion passant towards right with "2") - Portugal (eagle or eagle's head, boar or boar's head facing left with "II", 833 and eagle facing left)

835 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .835 (Portugal)
Austria (bird's head facing right with "3") - Belgium (AG835, four petals figural) - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "4") - Hungary (835 and woman's head) - Malta (835 into a rectangle) - The Netherlands (lion passant towards right with "II", 835 into a dagger) - Portugal (835 and eagle's head facing right)

850 (millesimal fineness)

Bulgaria (crown and "A3")

875 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .875 (Estonia)
Estonia (875 into an oval) - Finland (875H into a rectangle) - Latvia (queen's head and 875 into a shaped oval) - Malta (after 1964) - Poland (women's head facing left or right and "2") - Romania (wheat's ear and sickle, 875 and tower) - Russia (875 and symbol) - Switzerland (standing bear facing left)

900 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .900 (Italy)
Argentina (900, 0,900) - Austria (Diana or bird's head with "2") - Belgium (A900) - Bulgaria (crown and "A2") - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "2" or "3", rabbit's head) - Egypt (Arabic number) - Estonia (900 into a rectangle) - Hungary (Diana head and "2", 900 and man's head) - Italy (woman's head facing left with "2") - Japan (900 into a lozenge) - USA (COIN)


915 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .915 (Spain)
Spain (star)

916 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .916 (Poland)
Finland (916H into a rectangle) - Poland (woman's head facing right and "1") - Portugal (eagle facing left with "I" or 916, eagle's head facing left with "I", boar or boar's head facing left with "I") - Romania (wheat and sickle, 916 and tower) - Spain (royal coat of arms)

917 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .917 (Malta)
Malta (after 1964)

925 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .925 (Norway)
Argentina (925) - Belgium (AG925, four petals figural) - Canada (925, STERLING) - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "2") - Denmark (925S, STERLING) - Finland (925, 925H into a rectangle) - Hungary (925 and man's head) - Italy (925 into an oval) - Japan (925 into a lozenge) - Lithuania (925) - Malta (925 into a rectangle) - Mexico (L925, 925, STERLING) - The Netherlands (lion rampant facing right and "I") - Norway (925S with or without outline) - Peru (925, ESTERLINA 925, STERLING 925) - Portugal (925 and eagle's head facing left) - Romania (925 and tower) - Spain (925V1 or other letters as M1, A1, AR1 etc. identifying the assay office into a rectangle, 925B2 into a rectangle) - Sweden (925, STERLING) - Switzerland (duck facing left, 0.925, 925) - United Kingdom (lion passant or guardant facing left) - USA (STERLING)

934 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .934 (The Netherlands)
The Netherlands (lion rampant facing right with "1")

935 (millesimal fineness)

Austria (bird's head facing right with "1") - Estonia (935 into a rectangle) - Hungary (Diana head and "1")

940 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .940 (Poland)
Poland (woman's head facing left and "1")

950 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .950 (France)
Austria (Diana head with "1") - Belgium (Lyre mark) - Bulgaria (crown and "A1") - Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "1", crown) - France (Minerva head or various figural marks with "1") - Italy (woman's head facing left with "1") - Japan (950 into a lozenge) - Romania (two fishes and "I")

958 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .958 (United Kingdom) silver fineness .958 (United Kingdom)
United Kingdom (lion's head erased and Britannia )

959 (millesimal fineness)

Czechia and Slovakia (woman's head and "1") - Malta (after 1964)

980 (millesimal fineness)
silver fineness .958 (United Kingdom)
Mexico (980)


English home page
This is a page of 'The What is? Silver Dictionary' of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertu, a 1500 pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, Sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths (Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkington), history, oddities ...
HOME - SITE MAP - SILVER DICTIONARY - COOKIES CONSENT AND PRIVACY